Biography of Surikov. Russian artist Surikov Vasily Ivanovich
Vasily Surikov (1848-1916) - Russian artist, famous for his outstanding paintings. He is also famous for his portraits. His monumental canvases, on which he embodied various, mostly tragic episodes from the history of Russia, turned all the canons of such a painting upside down. Instead of the lush theatrical scenes, the ruthless reality of the past gazed at the viewer. Many were shocked by this approach. But this is how this artist forever entered the history of art. Biography and Surikov will be presented below.
It is known that the painter came from the Cossack kind. His ancestors came to Siberia together with her first conqueror, Yermak. They came from the Don, and there is information that the Surikovs are mentioned among the founders of Krasnoyarsk, where the artist was born. Biography Surikov integral to the history of Russia. In honor of the great-uncle of the painter, the Atamansky Island on the Yenisei was named.Another ancestor of Surikov served as a centurion in Turukhansk. It was his own grandfather. The artist's father, Ivan Vasilievich, worked as a collegiate registrar, and his mother's maiden name was Torgoshina. This is a family known since the seventeenth century. She, too, was from the Cossack village.
Childhood in Krasnoyarsk
The future artist was born in this city. When the boy was eight years old, his father was transferred to the service in the excise department of the village of Sukhoi Buzim, near Krasnoyarsk. There Vasily graduated from the parish school and entered the county school. But literally a year later, the artist's father suddenly dies of tuberculosis. Mother with son and other children returns to Krasnoyarsk. The family lives very poorly, they are constantly lacking money, and they are forced to rent part of a wooden house to tenants. Abilities of the boy were noticed by the drawing teacher of the Krasnoyarsk district school, Nikolay Grebnev. He let him copy the work of the old masters.
After the death of his father, the boy worked as a clerk in the office, but he painted in his leisure hours. His work was seen by employees. They also caught the eye of the regional governor, Zamyatin. Biography Surikov as an artist decided at this moment.The official filed a petition with the Imperial Academy of Arts about accepting a young man. The answer came that it can enroll without paying scholarships. Then the governor appealed to the philanthropist, gold producer Kuznetsov, who not only agreed to finance the training of the young man, but also took him to Petersburg, where he went on business. However, he could not enter the Academy.
Adolescence and Youth in St. Petersburg
Vasily Ivanovich Surikov did not apply to people who are accustomed to retreat. He went to study at the Art School, where he graduated in three months. And in 1869 he tried again to become a student of the Academy. This time his attempt was successful. The biography of Surikov tells us that his teachers were both not very gifted artists (but not bad teachers), like Pavel Chistyakov, and famous masters like Vrubel and Serov. Over the years of study, the young painter received four silver medals and several cash prizes for his work. A graduation picture of the artist, dedicated to an episode from the life of the Apostle Paul, has already carried elements of future dramatic clashes of various historical persons.But conservative teachers did not like it, and Surikov did not receive the gold medal. Therefore, he could not go abroad and began to paint frescoes on the theme of the Ecumenical Councils with the frescoes of the Cathedral of Christ the Savior. Work lasted about two years. Among the first paintings of the artist were the portraits of his benefactors.
Personal life and the capital period
Researchers biography Surikov write that he in 1877 moved to live in Moscow. A year after this, he married Elizabeth Share, granddaughter of the Decembrist Svistunova. Marriage brought him a small fortune, which allowed the painter not to work on orders, but to become a free artist. This status he retained for the rest of his life. Nevertheless, for many years Surikov did not have a decent workshop, but worked in small rooms. Peter Tretyakov, the future founder of the famous gallery, who collected paintings by Russian artists, visited one of such cramped rooms. He often bought paintings of the master. With the money received from Tretyakov, the artist was also able to secure relative financial independence for himself.
The Moscow period of life has become a turning point in the life of the painter.It was at this time that Vasily Ivanovich Surikov created one of his most significant paintings - “The Morning of the Strelets Execution”. It is dedicated to one of the worst episodes of the seventeenth century, when the young Peter the Great, learning about the uprising of the artillery regiments, mercilessly dealt with them and even chopped off their heads. Not wanting to frighten the audience with scenes of execution, the artist shows her threshold. The first archer was taken out to the scaffold, and in the background you can see the face of a young king ready to kill. The variegated crowd of spectators is beautifully and in detail painted. Families and children of the unfortunate archers are particularly prominent, who were dragged out to watch their loved ones die. And all this is happening against the backdrop of the mighty and ominous landscape of Moscow.
By the time of Peter the artist Vasily Surikov drawn in 1881. On rainy days, he was with his family at the Lyublino station. There, he suddenly thought about the exile of Prince Menshikov. This idea was prompted to him by a narrow peasant hut. He thought of a strong man who had soared to the pinnacle of power and had lost everything. The princess, wrapped in a fur coat, he drew from his own wife, who at that time was seriously ill.With the money that Surikov received from acquiring a painting by Tretyakov, he was able to go abroad and see the collections of museums in different countries with his own eyes.
Paintings by Vasily Surikov of the 80s - early 90s of the nineteenth century
Along with "Menshikov in Berezov," the artist began to make sketches of "Boyaryn Morozova." Work on this picture stretched over several years. Surikov wrote it in pieces, looking for models and necessary items. He often said that if he had to paint hell, he would put models into the fire and write in it himself. Such was his desire for truth, not virtuoso fiction. The artist himself found the type of boyary who had risen against the church authorities in his aunt. A strong and passionate female nature, true to her convictions and causing various feelings in the assembled crowd - from hatred to admiration - has become one of the best in Surikov's work. It harmonizes the picture with the landscape, light and architectural details. Contemporaries reacted to this canvas enthusiastically, it participated in the traveling exhibition.
In 1888, the artist's wife died. He very much grieved, practically left painting and left Moscow for Krasnoyarsk.There, after a few years, he was cured of grief and even created a cheerful picture “Taking the Snowy Town”.
Return to Moscow
The work of Vasily Surikov after moving from Siberia seems to get a second wind. In 1895 he completed work on the painting "The Conquest of Siberia by Yermak". Here he glorifies the Cossack army, where his ancestors served. The focus is on the figure of Yermak, but he treats Kuchum’s opposing troops with respect. The soldiers of the defeated army are distinguished by their special, distinctive beauty. This is a clash of two elements, each of which has its own truth.
Four years later, the artist creates a picture of a similar type - “The transition of Suvorov through the Alps”. He began working on it immediately after the "Conquest of Siberia", and many sketches were written during his stay in Switzerland. Here the painter proved himself to be a beautiful landscape painter, at the same time showing a mass of warriors who were carrying out the orders of the commander and overcoming mountains.
At the beginning of the twentieth century, Surikov was working on one of his most difficult paintings - “Stepan Razin”. Here, too, one can observe a stunning water landscape characteristic of the artist, painted with pearlescent colors, contrasting with the hard thoughts of the rebellious chieftain.The painter is also known for his numerous portraits, which he never painted on request.
last years of life
In 1910, the artist travels in Spain. Pictures of Vasily Surikov of this period also relate to historical subjects. He draws such a strong personality as Emelyan Pugachev, before being executed, in a cage. The painter refers to the mysterious reclusive life of the aristocrats of the upper class in “Visiting the Tsarevna nunnery”. In 1914-15, the artist began to get sick and moved to the Crimea for treatment. But he was haunted by heart disorders. He could not be healed and died in Moscow in March 1916.