Cerebral palsy in newborns: diagnosis, forms, treatment methods
Cerebral palsy is a congenital non-progressive disease of the nervous system that occurs in the early stages of the perinatal and postnatal period, characterized by complex disorders of motor, psycho-emotional, and often intellectual development.
Forms of cerebral palsy
To date, according to the ICD, it is customary to isolate a number of forms of cerebral palsy in newborns. The most common is spastic diplegia, in which the patient has impaired movement of the upper and lower extremities; and often the legs are affected more than the hands. Often, carriers of this form of cerebral palsy also have impaired eye movements. The most severe is double hemiplegia, characterized by severe limitations of the mobility of all four limbs and other muscles. The hemiparetic form of cerebral palsy in newborns is more often associated with damage to one of the sides of the body.A distinctive feature of the hyperkinetic form of cerebral palsy is the periodic appearance of hyperkinesis - uncontrolled involuntary movements, aggravated in a state of nervous tension and weakening in a state of rest. Patients who are diagnosed with the atonic-astatic form of the disease are distinguished by low muscle tone, lack of motor reflexes, poor coordination of movements.
Causes of Cerebral Palsy
To date, experts have identified at least 400 factors that, to varying degrees, increase the risk of developing cerebral palsy in newborns. These include prematurity or fetal hypoxia, birth trauma, intrauterine infections, rhesus-conflict between mother and child. Separately, it is worth noting that cerebral palsy is not a hereditary disease!
How to recognize cerebral palsy in a newborn?
Despite the fact that manysigns of cerebral palsy in a newborn are noted already in the first year of life; a more accurate diagnosis can be formulated much later. However, close observation of the child often allows one to recognize the disease at an early stage and to take further all the measures necessary to improve his health.How bright are the signs of cerebral palsy in newborns? It is worth noting that, first of all, the time and nature of the manifestations of the disease depend on its form.Thus, the spastic diplegia described above and double hemiplegia make themselves felt in the first months of life: such children have difficulty holding their heads; they have disturbed eye movements. It is worth paying attention to other indicators that can indicate cerebral palsy in newborns. Thus, the development of the disease is often accompanied by hypertonicity of the extremities and palmar-mouth reflex, persisting up to six months, a delay in emotional development, asymmetry of the body.
Can we cure cerebral palsy?
The pledge of normal development and the maximum possible restoration of the motor functions of the child is timely treatment. The most common methods of treatment of cerebral palsy today include exercise therapy (physical therapy aimed at improving motor skills and preventing the development of contractures), massage, stabilizing muscle tone, electroreflexotherapy, physiotherapy, etc. Less commonly, surgical methods are used for the treatment of cerebral palsy (Ulzibat method, etc.).