Clematis flower: varieties, planting and care, reproduction
Very often, owners of suburban areas decorate their territories using vertical gardening. Decorated in such a way, gazebos, porches, roofs and fences look amazing. For this purpose, climbing vine-like flowering plants are used, which with their bright beautiful flowers liven up and decorate the space around them beautifully.
Clematis flower is excellent for such purposes. Placing it on special supports, called trellis, on pergolas or arches, you can create a great place to relax.
Clematis belongs to the Buttercup family. In the natural environment grows about 300 species of this flower, which can be found everywhere except Antarctica.
Clematis are perennial herbaceous plants, which are divided into vines (climbing) and shrubs (non-climbing). Creepers can have a length of from two to ten meters, they have strong thin stems.
Clematis flower boasts foliage and flowers of various shapes and different shades. By the size of the flowers, plants of this species are subdivided into small-flowered, having a flower with a diameter of up to 7 cm, and large-flowered ones, with a diameter of flowers up to 20 cm.
In shrubby clematis, shoots that have completed their growing season die off, while in shrubs, the non-woody upper part dies off annually, while the lower part lasts for several years and endures wintering.
Blooming clematis also heterogeneous. Early varieties bloom in spring, and later ones become covered with flowers at the end of summer. Therefore, there is a great opportunity to choose varieties so that flowering continues throughout the warm season of the year. Short-term frost plants are not terrible, the process of formation of flowers stops only with the onset of resistant frost.
The plant has a pivotal, poorly transplant-borne root system. Clematis leaves are green and purple in color, a pair of complex or simple structure, sepals have 5-7 leaves, often a different color than the flower. This gives the plant a particularly attractive appearance.
Clematis without a transplant can grow up to twenty years, undemanding to the ground, resistant to climatic differences.
Use in landscape design
All varieties of clematis were widely used to decorate the landscape.
Liana long-growing species are used for landscaping terraces, fences, arbors, perfectly decorate the walls and hide the imperfections of the surface. Some gardeners prefer the vines to hover over the trunks of trees and hang from them, giving the garden a fabulous look.
Bush varieties up to a meter in height are usually planted in groups on lawns or flower beds, and this species looks great in a rocky garden or along garden paths.
Landing with a contrasting color of flowers, well matched to the color of the surface, looks especially impressive. Clematis white with multi-colored lianas looks great, which, intertwined, create a unique landscape.
Florists classify clematis as follows:
- Clematis Jakmana. This is a lush, large-flowered vine with a developed rhizome. The flowers of this species do not smell, have blue-violet or purple hues.The plant is characterized by abundant flowering of the current year shoots, which are cut for wintering.
- Clematis Vitichella. Three-meter long vines with flowers of pink shades. Abundant and long bloom on fresh shoots.
- Clematis lanuginoza. Creepers with three-meter shoots and large flowers of different color. Bloom profusely on last year's shoots.
- Clematis Patents. Three-meter vines with double flowers, which cover last year's shoots.
- Clematis Florida. Lianovid clematis up to 2.5 m long. The flowers are mostly light colors, last year's shoots bloom.
- Clematis Integrifolia. Vigorous shrub to 1.5 m tall with a variety of bell-shaped flowers covering the shoots of the current year.
Small-flowered species of clematis bloom especially long and are distinguished by enviable simplicity in care.
The most used varieties of clematis:
- Clematis borschavikolistny. A semi-shrub erect from East China, erect, up to 1 m tall. It has tubular flowers with a pleasant smell up to 3 cm in diameter. It is used as a border decoration for stony hills.
- Vineyard Clematis.There was a view from the Caucasus, from the Crimea and Asia Minor. This is a six-meter shrub vine with open slightly aromatic flowers. It grows quite quickly and needs a strong pruning. Used for vertical design.
- Clematis mountain. Five-meter native of the Himalayas and Central China. Shrub with medium flower size and delicate aroma. The variety of early lush flowering is of interest for vertical gardening.
- Clematis is burning. Homeland is the Mediterranean. This is a three-meter vine with dark green foliage and cord-like roots. It has cruciform fragrant flowers, richly blooming and fragrant.
- Clematis Tangut. Low shrub to 30 cm with drooping bell flowers, sometimes blooms twice per season.
- Clematis is short-tailed. In a natural environment inhabits North China and the Far East. It is a seven-meter liana with racemes. It is clematis white with numerous flowers.
- Clematis Manchu. Far Eastern grassy vine 1.5 m long with fragrant abundant flowering.
- Clematis whole-leaf. Erect herbaceous shrub up to half a meter tall with drooping bells. It is a good honey plant.
- Clematis straight. Occurred from the southern regions of Europe and the Caucasus.Erect low grassy shrub up to a meter tall, blooms profusely, the smell is unpleasant.
- Clematis paniculata. Homeland are Japan and Korea. This is a six-meter shrub vine with a very fragrant, abundant flowering in autumn.
The plant is light-loving. If it lacks light, clematis does not bloom. Therefore, it is best to plant it in open sunny places, permissible slightly shaded. But in the south, where soils tend to overheat, clematis is planted in shaded places. The enemy of a flower is the wind that breaks its branches and knocks down flowers; this also needs to be taken into account when choosing a landing site.
Clematis need four times a day fertilizing with mineral fertilizers, preferably after watering. The soil for flowers requires loamy fertile or sandy, rich in humus, friable.
To protect against overheating of the root system, clematis can be planted with annuals.
Before wintering, most varieties require shelter, in front of which bushes need pruning and cleaning of old foliage.
Watering the plants like abundant, especially in dry hot weather, but without stagnant water in the ground. This is especially important in the first couple of years after disembarkation.After three years, clematis flower is watered twice a week with a volume of up to three liters of water for each bush. To keep moisture better, soil can be mulched with peat, humus, sawdust.
Abundant blooming of clematis begins at the age of five or six, and until that time there are only a few flowers that need to be cut off. From three years old, the plant grows shoots.
Preparation of land for clematis begin in advance, as in one place the plant will be quite a long time.
The planting scheme involves digging holes of at least 60 x 60 cm in size. For back filling, excavated soil from each well is mixed with the following composition:
- sand - 1 bucket;
- peat - 1 bucket;
- humus or compost - 2 buckets;
- superphosphate - 100 g;
- mineral fertilizer - 150 g;
- lime - 150 g;
- ash - 100 g
The mixture is thoroughly mixed, poured into a hole and compacted. If the soil water in the area is located close to the ground, then a gravel drainage layer is laid in the 15-centimeter layer at the bottom of the pit before backfilling.
For planting in the fall, shoots with vegetative buds are selected, and for spring planting, an annual plant must have at least one shoot. It is also important to have three roots at least 10 cm long.
For the proper development of lianovid varieties, a support is prepared, which can serve not only artificial structures, but also such shrubs, such as Chubushnik, weigela, forsythia.
When planting, clematis seedling is buried 10 cm, the shoot is cut, leaving four buds below. Then shoots plentifully watered and hardened. Every few days the sprout is tied to a support.
Clematis shoots pruning
The fragrance and beauty of the shoots of this plant is largely dependent on proper and timely pruning.
In order to bloom clematis well, its maintenance provides for sanitary seasonal intermediate pruning in order to remove diseased, thin or dried branches. Also, pruning for the first time one- and two-year-old young plants are produced during planting. This is important for above-ground development, because of the few buds left during planting, shoots will develop, and in the summer they need to be pinched. The shoots are then pruned in the spring again to the vegetative buds, so that they give shoots.
In addition to seasonal processing, there is a mandatory pruning of adult plants (over two years old) before wintering. Without it, it will not develop well and bloom profusely.This process is divided into three groups:
- The first group includes those clematis, which bloom at the end of spring or the beginning of summer and occurs on last year's shoots. These include varieties of Alpine, krupnolepestnogo, Siberian, mountain clematis. These species do not need to cover and do not necessarily strongly trimmed for the winter. It will be enough to sanitary and easy pruning after flowering at high plant height.
- The second group of pruning combines the flowers of the varieties Patents, Florida, Lanuginoza, which cover the shoots of both seasons: the current and the previous. Such plants are cut twice: first, right after the end of the first flowering of last year’s shoots, they are cut, this time is in May-June. A secondary pruning of clematis is performed after the first frost in the fall, before sheltering for the winter. Strong and strong shoots at the same time are cut by one third, and weak, dried or sick - completely. After this treatment, the shoots are rolled up, laid on the ground and covered.
- The third group is the Clematis of the Vititsella, Jacmanmann and Intergrifolia grades.They throw flowers on fresh shoots grown in the current year from July to September. Before sheltering for the winter, they are severely cut off, leaving three knots from the ground. This is done to ensure that in the future season has a magnificent bloom.
Grassy varieties of Manchurian, direct, Texan and semi-shrub whole-leaved, borschtvikolistnogo clematis cut off to remove dead processes in late autumn or spring.
Reproduction of Clematis by Seeds
Seeds, as a rule, reproduce small-flowered varieties of clematis. And they can rise at different times, depending on the variety. Some of them are able to germinate only in the second or third year after planting, some later.
Three weeks after sowing, the area should be poured with a weak solution of boric acid at the rate of two grams per bucket of water and potassium permanganate in a ratio of three grams to the same amount of liquid.
How to multiply clematis by cutting
For reproduction in this way, clematis cuttings containing one or two internodes are cut at the beginning of flowering. Cut them out from the middle of the branches, leaving a couple of centimeters above the node and four below.After that, the cuttings are dipped for two days in a solution of heteroauxin, which is diluted in a proportion of 60 g per liter of water.
The cuttings of the plant are planted in the tank obliquely. The soil for planting should consist of washed sand and peat in equal shares. The container is covered with a film to maintain the optimum temperature, which is approximately 23 ° C, so the rooting of the cuttings will occur faster. At the time of rooting they should be sprayed.
The duration of rooting depends on the variety of clematis, so the process takes from one to two months. As soon as it happens, the flowers are transplanted into vases with fertile soil. If the time of planting seedlings in the ground is already missed, then during the winter the plants are kept in a room where the temperature should not rise above +5 ° C. Watering at this time is carried out rarely, but make sure that the ground does not dry out. The following year, in spring, clematis seedlings are sufficiently prepared to land in their place. Those plants that rooted cuttings in the summer bloom in the autumn of next year.
This method is used for breeding large-flowered clematis.Shrubs are allowed to divide in spring and autumn, before the onset of growth of buds, and the bushes are divided only in those clematis that have not reached the age of seven. Later this procedure will be impossible to carry out due to the powerful development of rhizomes.
To divide, the clematis bush is dug out, carefully released from the ground and carefully cut with a pruning shears or a sharp knife so that each separated fragment has buds on the root neck.
Reproduction using layering
Before you multiply clematis by layering, it is useful to know that a shrub can reproduce itself beautifully, you only need a little help. To do this, the bush spuds with humus or peat, and a year later the roots grow on the lower shoots.
But you can propagate the plant and green young shoots, for which the shoot of 30 cm length is bent to the ground and pinned with a brace into the groove to a depth of about 10 cm in places of internodes. During the growth of escape, the new internodes are sprinkled again, and the tip with leaves remains at the top. It is important to water clematis during this period. By the cold, the shoot will take root and remain to hibernate.In the spring of the whip between the nodes you need to cut and plant a flower in a permanent place.
Diseases and pests of the plant
Most often, clematis diseases are caused by lesions:
- Gray rot. The disease develops due to wet, wet soil. The plant should be treated with antiseptic and correct the cause.
- Powdery mildew The young parts of the plants are covered with a white mealy bloom, clematis stops growth and flowering. To combat the disease, the affected parts are burned, and the flower is sprayed with 0.1% of foundationol or 0.4% of soda ash.
- Rust. For this disease characteristic is the appearance in the spring on various parts of the plant brown spots with spores. The plant is deformed and dries. 2% Bordeaux liquid and chemical preparations help to cope with the disease.
Clematis diseases also occur with pest damage. The most dangerous of them is the gallic nematode. It hits the root, and it is already impossible to help the flower, it must be destroyed. When planting or buying clematis root, you should carefully examine it for the presence of nodules - gall.
Pests in the form of aphids, spider mites, slugs and snails do not carry a noticeable danger to clematis, so the fight against them is sparing. This treatment and 2% garlic extract, and a decoction of onion peel.Also requires regular removal of weeds.
Since clematis is a native of warm places, it needs shelter for the winter period after autumn pruning. This is done with the help of boards, boxes, sprinkling with soil, foliage, pine fir trees, peat or rotted manure with a layer of about 30 cm.
You can not cut off the shoots, and, turning them, lay on the ground, and also cover. In the spring, those parts that are dead are cut off, and the plant is tied up.
Modern frost-resistant varieties of clematis can withstand cold weather and do not need pruning and shelter.