Culture and civilization in the development of mankind
Correlation of the concepts of culture and civilizationis a rather complex problem. Some philosophers consider them almost synonymous, but also a cohort of those who breed these terms and consider them antagonistic. Let us consider the very meaning and origin of these words. "Culture" appeared in ancient Rome and originally designated the cultivation of the land. The etymology of the term "civilization" comes from the Latin "civis" (which means a city dweller, a citizen). This term implies a certain level of development of social relations (laws, state infrastructure), everyday life (public buildings, roads, water, etc.), manners and art (ethics and aesthetics).
As we see, on the one hand the Romans includedculture (in its present understanding) into the more general term "civilization", and, on the other hand, contrasted it as something rural and barbaric to the urban, enlightened and subtle. However, we can definitely say that at the dawn of humanity both of these phenomena were not antonymous. After all, we say: "the culture of ancient civilizations," implying an organic blend of the technical achievements and mythology, art and science of this or that people at a certain level of progress.
Man does not adapt to the world around him,but tends to transform it. Therefore, we can confidently say that both culture and civilization are a manifestation of the progressive development of human society, that is, the result of progress. On the one hand, a person tries to understand the laws that exist in nature, and use them, to obtain additional material benefits for their existence. On the other hand, he tries to realize his place in this world, to find lost harmony, to comprehend the purpose of his life.
Until the New Time, culture and civilization are notopposed, but mutually complemented each other. The laws of nature were understood as established by God (or deities) norms, and thus the sphere of the spiritual actively interacted with the material world. The creation of God - man - created a different nature, which also participated in heavenly harmony, although it found its manifestation in such seemingly mundane things as a water mill, plow for deep plowing and bank lending.
However, with the beginning of the technogenic era, concepts"Culture" and "civilization" begin to diverge. Mass production of products coming off the conveyor depersonalizes them, distances them from their creator - artisan. The man stopped putting his soul into things, and they began to dominate him. Both these concepts became antagonistic, and in addition, there was an ersatz, a "centaur" of both phenomena - fashion.
What is the essence of the confrontation in whichculture and civilization? The first operates with eternal values (the classic never becomes obsolete), and the second proceeds from the fact that gadgets become morally obsolete, they are replaced by others, more advanced ones. Modern science is pragmatic (mainly financed only in those industries that bring tangible dividends), whereas the achievements of the spirit do not always pay back costs. Art, literature, religion are based on the achievements of all the past ages, whereas each level of the next stage of progress is often self-sufficient.