Description of the tricolor and the meaning of the colors of the Russian flag. What do the colors of the Russian flag mean
The flag is the official symbol of most states. In modern Russia, this heraldic element is a rectangular-shaped canvas, consisting of three stripes that are the same width and horizontal. The colors of the Russian flag are white (on top), blue (in the middle), red (below). The standardized length-to-width ratio is 3 to 2.
These general facts are complemented by the most interesting history of the appearance of the banner of our country. Consider them, try to understand the specifics of the emergence of heraldic symbols, to learn about the meaning of the colors of the Russian flag.
How did the tricolor
The concept of “state flag” in our country arose closer to the end of the 17th century. Before that, of course, Russia also possessed heraldry.As a rule, these were religious flags, which were raised over the infantry and cavalry of the royal troops. The first facts about the use of flags (in the modern sense) or, at least, their types were recorded during the reign of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich. Then, for example, the first warship in our country was built, called the Eagle. Johann van Sweeden, a merchant from Holland, participated in its construction. According to some historical documents, he asked the tsar to approve a flag that should be mounted on the ship's mast, just like in other European countries. The need to approve this symbol was expressed in the court environment of the king. There is historical information indicating that the flag for the ship "Eagle" was approved, but the facts that would indicate the uniformity of this element, historians have not been found. Whether it was a tricolor in its present form is unknown.
The main events associated with the approval of the flag of Russia in the form of the usual "philistine" everyday inhabitant fall in the reign of Peter I.In August 1693, when the royal flotilla made a campaign in the White Sea, a panel, called the “flag of the Tsar of Moscow”, was raised on the ship “Saint Peter”. Preserved information about its size - banner width was 4.9 meters, height - 4.6. It consisted of three bands of the same width - white (top), blue (middle) and red (bottom) color. In the middle of the cloth was depicted a two-headed eagle in gold colors. The original "flag of the Tsar of Moscow" can be seen in the St. Petersburg Naval Museum. However, historians have so far failed to find out what the colors of the Russian flag, approved under Peter I, symbolize.
Flag status in the Russian Empire
From the moment it was adopted under Peter I, the Russian tricolor was used by the army and power institutions of the Russian Empire until the events of the October Revolution of 1917, and after the collapse of the USSR, the flag of the Russian Federation became its successor. There were, however, various modifications of the tricolor. For example, in 1806, Tsar Alexander I ordered to approve a flag for a Russian-American company, which was to consist, like a government banner, of white, blue and red bands, but not in equal proportions, but 2 to 1 and 1.
It is worth noting, however, that the flag did not have the status of an official state symbol for a long time. This fact indirectly influenced the fact that in some cases in the Russian Empire not the tricolor was used, but the imperial Standard, which was yellow.
Historically, the first precedent that could signify the fact that the main flag is still a tricolor - putting white, blue and red cloths on display by Russian troops who entered Paris in 1814. But at the same time, there were no documents or decrees that would directly say that the tricolor is a state symbol (as it is stated, for example, in the Constitution of the Russian Federation), was not until 1896.
Imperial black and yellow and white flag
In modern Russian society there is an opinion that the main flag of the Russian Empire is more correct to consider not the tricolor, but the cloth, consisting of strips of a different color — black, yellow, and white. Some political and public figures believe that the meaning of the colors of the flag of the Russian Federation would be more logical explained if this symbol wore "imperial" shades. Consider the historical facts concerning the black-yellow-white banner.
Emblems of the Empire
What do the colors of the Russian flag used in the new cloth mean? The fact is that black, yellow and white colors have been used in the structures of royal power since the 18th century. Historical information is known that speaks of the use of these three shades as the basis for the state uniform in the army, and afterwards as the imperial official colors. After World War II, black-and-yellow-white panels symbolizing royal power began to be hung out in various cities of Russia (while in Paris itself, as we have said, Russian troops used tricolor).
The official explanation for the combination of colors adopted in the new flag is contained in the King’s Decree signed in June 1858. At the same time, there is no information in the document that we are talking about the state policy. The decree speaks of coat of arms, as well as their location on the banners, various flags and other items that are used at ceremonial events. Shades - black, yellow (gold) and white (silver), in accordance with the decree, should be placed in the form of horizontal stripes. The colors come, respectively, from the black double-headed eagle, as well as the gold and silver cockade used in the time of Peter I and Catherine II.
Under Emperor Alexander II, another interpretation of the stripes on the flag was given. Black color also corresponds to the eagle on the coat of arms of the empire. Yellow - similarly, taken from the state emblem. White is the color of St. George.
In various sources, the median strip on the flag could be denoted as orange. Also, since the official documents did not say anything about the status of the banner, the name of this symbol was not uniform in the writings of various authors. The flag could be called “national”, “stamped”, “state” or, for example, “Romanov flowers”.
Black, yellow and white was approved as one of the state symbols in June 1858.
It could only be used by government agencies and administrative structures. Individuals had the right to use only tricolor. However, already in 1896, the black, yellow, and white cloth was abolished. The only national symbol was the tricolor.
The abolition of the black-yellow-white banner occurred during the summit meetings. Officials decided what color the Russian flag should be. It was suggested that it is white, blue and red that best reflect the national, cultural and historical specifics of the development of the state.In particular, there was the thesis that the tricolor shades are “folk”. This can be traced to the clothes of Russian peasants, who most often wore blue and white shirts, and women - in red sundresses. The white color in the theses of the participants in the meetings was associated with snow, which covers the main part of the territory of Russia for more than six months a year. Taking into account the versions reflecting the meaning of the colors of the Russian flag, the structures under the authority recognized that the shades adopted under Peter I were most characteristic of Russian statehood. That is, the decision was taken: the national flag should be tricolor. During the coronation of Nicholas II, almost all the elements of the solemn entourage used only these three colors of the Russian flag - white, blue and red.
And yet the tricolor?
At the beginning of the 20th century, there were theses in the political environment that the national flag, despite the unequivocal wording of heraldic experts in the 90s of the 19th century, should be different. The colors of the flag of the Russian Empire in accordance with the initiatives should still be replaced by black, yellow and white.In particular, meetings were held at the Ministry of Justice designed to compare the facts regarding the legality of using one or another combination of shades. The main group of officials expressed the opinion that the black-yellow-white flag should be the specific state symbol, and the tricolor should be used by trade shipping organizations (moreover, only in inland waters). Evaluation of this initiative in other government circles was ambiguous. One way or another, the tricolor remained the national flag of Russia. Black, yellow and white shades, however, retained the status of state, and therefore often used as a color basis for elements of military and civilian clothes, as well as medals.
Revolution and Soviet times
After the 1917 revolution and until the end of the Civil War, the tricolor was used by the white movement. When the Soviet power was established in the country, the white-blue-red flag began to be used in emigrant structures outside the country. In the USSR, before the beginning of Perestroika, the tricolor was actually banned (and not only because it was a symbol of tsarism - there were cases of its use by fascist organizations during the Great Patriotic War).
Now we will try to trace how the state flag of the Russian Federation was asserted. In the late 80s, national-patriots began to make themselves felt against the background of political easing in the USSR. In their activities, they often used tricolor. In 1989, one of the leading public organizations, the Russian Banner Association, proposed using the white-blue-red flag as the state flag. A large-scale propaganda campaign to collect civilian signatures to the Council of the RSFSR was launched.
It is worth noting that in parallel there were initiatives on the part of monarchist organizations that used the imperial black, yellow and white flag in their public speeches. Some public organizations put forward the thesis that the state symbol should be a blue-red-green flag. He did not have any historical bases, but the meaning of the colors of the Russian flag on it, as the authors of the idea believed, was logical. Blue color assumed a clear sky during the Russian Empire, red - the communist regime, green - a symbol of the bright future of the country.
Flag of a sovereign country
An interesting fact - in 1990, chess player Garry Kasparov, who represented the Soviet Union in a fight for the title of world champion, played under the tricolor. While his counterpart - Anatoly Karpov - played under the Soviet banner of red color.
In November 1990, the decision to create a new flag was made by the highest authorities of the RSFSR. Following the work of the experts, the Council of Ministers was recommended to return to using the white-blue-red cloth as an official symbol. In August 1991, the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR approved a decree according to which the tricolor became the national flag of Russia. In 1993, the provisions on this state symbol and its colors were enshrined in the Constitution. So the flag of the Russian Federation appeared. Since then it has been used without any significant changes.
Abstracts about the colors of the flag
There are no found historical documents that would directly indicate what significance the colors of the Russian flag are considered official, in support of or supplementing the thesis that white, blue and red shades are typical for traditional Russian clothes. Despite the huge historical role played by the flag of the Russian Empire adopted under Peter I, the meaning of the colors of this symbol has not been established.In this regard, there are a lot of versions about the origin of shades. There is, for example, the Pan-Slavic theory, according to which the white, blue and red colors of the Russian flag reflect the culture of not only Russians, but also the majority of their kindred peoples. This is indirectly confirmed by the range of colors used in the flags of such states as Slovakia, Czech Republic, Slovenia, and Serbia.
The banners of these countries are made exactly in white, blue and red colors, as well as the Russian state flag. There is a thesis that under Peter I the choice of colors for the cloth was influenced by the colors adopted in Holland.
On the flag "Country of Tulips" at that time they were exactly the same. The question of what the colors of the Russian flag mean remains open.
Consider other popular interpretations. There is a version that white color should symbolize two most important human qualities - nobility and frankness. Blue - loyalty, adherence to the principles of honesty, chastity, and impeccability. Red color, in turn, can reflect the courage of Russians, courage, real generosity, sincere love.
There is a version that the tricolor reflects the main historical areas of our country - Great Russia (it is characterized by a red tint),White Russia (which is reflected in the same color) and Little Russia (now its main territory coincides with Ukraine, in the tricolor it corresponds to blue). This theory is based on the naming of the title of the Russian Tsar, which sounded like the All "Great, Little and White of Russia" (thereby emphasizing the unity of the three nations - Great Russians, Little Russians, Belarusians).
Even before the revolution, a version appeared that the white stripe on the flag could mean the freedom of the Russian people. Blue is the color of the Virgin. Red can symbolize the great Russian statehood.
Using the flag of the Russian Federation
The status of the state banner, as well as the rules for its use in the Russian Federation are enshrined in a number of laws. In certain periods of time, the state regulated the use of the flag rather strictly. In particular, the federal constitutional law “On the State Flag” in its first editions allowed only the authorities, courts, warships, and official representative offices of the Russian Federation to hang the flag. Individuals could use this state symbol with significant restrictions.If someone allowed the use of the flag outside the legal norms, it was considered an administrative offense.
In 2008, amendments to the Federal Constitutional Law were adopted. According to them, the national flag got the opportunity to use all citizens, all types of organizations - but only in a respectful manner. Violators of the procedure for applying this state symbol face a fine - 3-5 (for citizens) or 5-10 (for organizations) of the minimum wage in accordance with the Administrative Code of the Russian Federation.
Now the flags of Russia are used by both state and private structures, citizens. It is hard to imagine a modern sports fan who would not hold the national flag in his hands. Flags are increasingly appearing on the windows and balconies of apartments - thus the Russians express their patriotic feelings. In the order of things, the placement of the state banner in the corridors and classrooms of schools, classrooms of universities, colleges and high schools.