General scientific dialectic method and its development
The word "dialectic" has ancient Greek roots. In translation, the term means "the art of reasoning, arguing." The general scientific dialectic method acts as one of the central elements in the Indian and European philosophical traditions. We investigate it in more detail.
The development of the dialectical method
About 2.5 thousand years ago, the first philosophical currents began to appear in ancient Greece, China and India. The early trends were naively-dialectical and spontaneous materialistic in nature. The formation of Eastern wisdom went through several stages. At first she relied on a pair of categories, then she sought a common rationale for matured ideas and concepts, symbols and images, which were different to each other to the exact opposite. This path took place both in the esoteric and in quite well-known philosophical schools and trends. For a European, the exotic form of Eastern thinkers is somewhat unusual.Nevertheless, for them, it also acts as an expression of the struggle and unity of opposites in the content of conceivable definitions. The dialectical method tuned the theoretical thinking of Indians, Persians, Chinese, Arabs, Egyptians and other thinkers to realize the meaningful classification, the search for a reasonable justification of the mutual determinability of categories. In the center was the opposite of vain action in the world of transient things to the wise contemplation of the eternal meaning of one being. You can comprehend this by reaching meaning-sensual-body harmony with the world and yourself, overcoming the opposite moments of actions and experiences. The dialectical method became known through the writings of Plato. He described the forms of conversations in which two or more participants could hold different opinions, but sought to find the truth through the exchange of their conclusions. Beginning with Hegel, the dialectical scientific method is contrasted with metaphysics. In it, phenomena and things are independent of each other and unchanged.
Definitions of Thinkers
In the history of philosophy, the dialectical method was interpreted in various ways.
- In particular, Heraclitus called him the doctrine of eternal volatility and the formation of being.
- Socrates interpreted it as an art of dialogue and understood it as comprehending the truth by posing various leading questions and consistent answers to them.
- According to Plato, the dialectical method implies the dismemberment and binding of concepts in order to comprehend the ideal (supersensible) essence of things.
- Bruno, Kuzansky considered this trend the doctrine of combining opposites.
- According to Kant, this is the way by which the illusions created by the human mind are destroyed, which inevitably become entangled in contradictions in striving for absolute and complete knowledge.
- Aristotle believed that the dialectical method involves the consideration of the provisions of the study in their broad sense.
- The theory of Marxism-Leninism took it as the basis of knowledge of reality and its revolutionary transformations.
- Hegel called this trend the universal method of studying contradictions, acting as the internal driving forces of the development of history, spirit and being.
In the 20th century, the dialectical method of analysis was the subject of a theoretical and historical study of Nikolai Hartman.This direction was addressed by such modern thinkers as Brom and Sev. They viewed dialectics exclusively in relation to human activity. They did not associate it with nature and all other phenomena and things that exist outside of human behavior. After the Second World War, some thinkers widely used the dialectical method in their works. In particular, among such figures are Alexander Zinoviev, Richard Levontan, Patrick Cake and others. They not only applied this method, but also considered it as a subject of study. In the 21st century there were works of Charbonne, Olman, Sanchez-Palencia. In them, the method in combination with the dialectical materialism of Engels and Marx is introduced into science.
Using the dialectical method, a person can make understandable and accessible contradictions, paradoxical and unusual situations that can occur in experiments and observations of researchers. The content of the method changes with progress. This is due to the fact that in a certain sense, the essence of dialectics can be considered a science based on the principles of abstraction. The basic provisions of this direction were formulated by Engels. In the interpretation of Brom, these principles are as follows:
- Change and movement.
- Interdependence or interaction.
- Contradiction is the power of creation.
- Movement from quantity to quality.
- Denial of negation (development in a spiral).
Georges Politzer combined the third and fifth principles, which did not cause any inconvenience, since their content has not yet been determined.
Some evidence of materialistic dialectics can be found in biology. The physico-chemical deterministic formation of living organisms and a certain content of information are subject to endless changes in the course of evolution and metabolism. Dialectics allows to resolve scientific contradictions in all types of disciplines, including applied mathematics. But first of all, as noted by Sanchez-Palencia, it is applicable in psychology and sociology. In his opinion, the dialectic, in fact, cannot be called logic with its exact laws - it more acts as a common framework, within the framework of which evolutionary phenomena fit. Belostotsky believed that this direction passes through all cognition, allowing one to deduce the subject-object dyad from the most fundamental concepts, from non-being and being.
Dialectical methods are based on the productive activity of the human brain. They differ:
- Systemic use.
- Transcendental possibilities defined by the appropriate (dialectic) technologies.
Methods of knowledge within the discipline are transformed into methods of comprehension. They act as the highest stage, possess transcendental possibilities. Methods of knowledge are applied in accordance with the bases and aspects of research of the dialectical direction. At the present stage of the formation of philosophy, they form a complex, which is determined by the operational criterion for the reproduction of teachings on Hegel.
In the public part of the studies of contemporaries, groups of ways of knowing are defined:
1. The expression of the main (first) method:
- Dialectical method.
- Absolute way.
2. Relationship of the second, also basic, method:
- Phenomenological method.
- Reception of the limit of subjective interpretations.
3. Transcendental methods:
4. Methods started.
5. Dynamic techniques:
- Change of reasoning systems.
- Four levels of knowledge.
6. Singular techniques:
- A definite denial.
- Removing uncertainty at a point.
7. Structural techniques:
- Triad (including modeling of figures of inference and their implementation according to the scheme "thesis-antithesis-synthesis").
- Quad (transformation of synthesis in the thesis, the establishment of the position, the value generated).
- Reception of the average term.
8. Specialized methods:
- Topological (functorial) technique.
- Transcendental (ascending) method (based on relevant experience).
In modern philosophy, in addition to the above, are also used:
- Logical techniques (new and improved (advanced) existing).
- Subject methods (sociological methods, for example).
These elements can be used both independently and in combination with each other, taking into account measures for their implementation and maintenance, as well as on the basis of appropriate technologies.