Goiter is endemic, symptoms and treatment
Goiter endemic is manifested by an increase in the size of the thyroid gland in people living in the same locality, in such areas where there is an insufficient amount of iodine salts in the water and soil. Plant food in this region is also poor in iodine, and therefore the human body lacks it. An endemic goiter is recorded in those cases if 5% of children and more than 30% of the adult population have an increase in the thyroid gland of the first degree and above.
Iodine intake rates
An adult needs iodine 100-200 micrograms per day, it should be supplied with food and water. With a decrease in its amount below 50 micrograms, a compensatory enlargement of the thyroid gland develops, and endemic goiter occurs. In this case, not every inhabitant of this area is sick, other factors are also important. When poor nutrition in the body enters a little vitamin and protein, which contributes to the development of the disease. The deficiency of trace elements also works: cobalt, copper, selenium, zinc, molybdenum.The absorption of iodine is impaired when there is an excess of fluorine, calcium and manganese in the diet.
Goiter is endemic, symptoms
If the thyroid gland is evenly enlarged, the goiter is considered diffuse, with its partial enlargement they speak of the nodular form of the goiter. Thyroid size and abnormalities can be determined by ultrasound. In this examination, you can also identify which form of goiter is the disease. In those cases, if the function of the thyroid gland is still sufficient, the patient is most often disturbed by discomfort in the throat or neck: a feeling of pressure, intolerance of scarves and tight collars. With a significant increase in the size of the gland, there are signs of compression of the organs adjacent to the thyroid gland. When lying down, the feeling of squeezing of the neck is stronger, sometimes there is difficulty in breathing, when swallowing there is a feeling of an obstruction in the throat. A large endemic goiter squeezes the neck vessels, which leads to impaired blood circulation, and heart failure subsequently develops. In some cases, patients do not show any complaints at all, so only a medical examination allows you to make an accurate diagnosis (palpation of an enlarged thyroid gland is performed).To determine the correct diagnosis allows for additional blood tests for hormones (to assess its functioning) and ultrasound (ultrasound). The device allows you to very accurately (up to a millimeter) to estimate the size of the organ and calculate such an important indicator as the volume of the gland. The rate of this indicator for women is less than 18.5 ml, and 20 ml for men.
Endemic goiter treatment
The main drugs for goiter treatment are iodine-containing, as well as various hormones. In severe cases, surgical treatment is carried out.
Endemic goiter, prevention
Goiter endemic can be prevented. Prevention of the disease can be individual and mass. Salt iodization, i.e. the addition of potassium iodate to it is carried out with mass prophylaxis. At the same time, from 20 g to 40 g of potassium iodate is added to one ton of salt.