Groups of antibiotics and side effects of antibiotics
Side effects of antibiotics are often discussedat the forums, however, most people do not realize that the main danger of self-medication with antibiotics is not side effects at all, but the formation of bacteria resistance to even strong drugs if the dose was not chosen correctly or the duration was incorrectly calculated. Doing self-medication, you put yourself under attack not only yourself, but others. A side effect is just a nuisance, which in most cases is not very serious. Different undesirable effects are associated with different types of antibiotics.
The modern classification of antibiotics includes beta-lactam drugs (these are penicillins and cephalosporins), macrolides, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides.
Penicillins are the most ancient of antibiotics. They are used to treat infections of the urinary tract, the intestinal tract, the ear, infections in the mouth and respiratory infections, gonorrhea. Natural penicillins successfully disrupt the livelihoods of gram-positive bacteria such as staphylococcus and streptococcus, and also act against such a formidable pathogen as meningococcus (he is gram-negative).
However, bacteria have learned to produce an enzyme -Penicillinase, which destroys penicillins. However, some of them, steady, still help people. Aminopenicillins have an even broader spectrum of action (ampicillin and amoxicillin). Side effects of antibiotics of penicillins are the least pronounced in comparison with other species. Most often there is diarrhea. Other symptoms of a gastrointestinal disorder are also possible - nausea with vomiting and not very pronounced abdominal pain. Very rarely there are allergic reactions, fever, rash, anaphylactic shock. When pregnancy penicillins can be prescribed if the benefits from them will be more harmful. They are the drugs of choice in pregnancy, because some other antibiotics can not be used at this stage of life.
The mechanism of action of cephalosporins (cefazolin,cefpirom) are similar to penicillins, but they affect other classes of bacteria, although there are also crossings. For example, cephalosporins treat gonorrhea and ear infections. They also very well help with bacterial pneumonia, streptococcal lesions of the throat, tonsillitis, bronchitis, and damage to the urinary system by bacteria. This group includes very different drugs, they are even classified into 4 generations, each new generation has an increasing spectrum (that is, they are effective against more infections).
The most common side effects of antibioticscephalosporins are the same as for penicillins: gastrointestinal and pain disorders. However, allergic reactions are more common. In addition, 5-10% of allergy sufferers to penicillin also have an allergy to cephalosporins, which limits the possibility of using this medication. They are sometimes used in pregnancy.
Fluoroquinolones (norfloxacin, ofloxacin)are perfectly absorbed, so they are often prescribed in tablets. These are the newest antibiotics. Their spectrum is wide: infections of the skin, urinary tract, respiratory. They do not allow bacteria to multiply, suppressing the synthesis of bacterial DNA.
Side effects of antibiotics fluoroquinolones,except for intestinal disorders, also include disorders of the nervous system (headache, drowsiness, confusion). They can be dangerous for an unborn child, so they are used only in the case of a life-threatening mother of the disease.
Tetracyclines (doxycycline, tetracycline) containin the composition of 4 rings. They do not allow bacteria to synthesize protein. Among others, the ability of tetracyclines to kill amoebas is highlighted, which helps with dysentery. They treat typhus, Lyme disease, gonorrhea.
Side effects of antibiotics of this groupextensive - increased photosensitivity of the skin, sores in the mouth and tongue, burning, diarrhea. These drugs can affect the kidneys if their expiration date is over. In pregnancy, they are not prescribed, because the child has anomalies in the development of bones.
Macrolides (erythromycin, clarithromycin) bind to ribosomes, disrupting the synthesis of bacterial protein. They are able to penetrate deep into the lungs, and therefore are very good at the therapy of respiratory infections.
The most serious side effect of antibioticsmacrolides - temporary worsening of hearing. They can also irritate the oral mucosa. Or phlebitis if the drug is administered intravenously. With caution they are prescribed to people with a sick liver. When pregnancy is used only as a last resort.
Aminoglycosides (neomycin, gentamicin) are used to kill gram-negative bacteria. They are very unstable, so they are administered intravenously.
Side effect - they can damage the organshearing and vestibular apparatus, in addition, are very dangerous for the kidneys. Therefore, these drugs are used only for a short period of time, often together with penicillins. When pregnancy is not appointed.
So, the side effects are very serious. Therefore, let the doctor decide on the choice of antibiotic, dose and duration.