Hazelnut (hazel): planting and care. Redwood hazel
Common hazel (hazel) - forest residentmiddle belt of Russia, known since ancient times as a magnificent taste of its fruits - nuts, their high nutritional value, and the magical properties of wood attributed to it by folk beliefs. This useful shrub is invaluable and for its winged assistants - bees. Its abundant spring flowering gives a huge amount of the main food insects - pollen, thoroughly supporting them after wintering. The excellent decorativeness of hazel, and especially its hybrid culture - hazelnut, is increasingly used by gardeners in decorating dachas and estates.
Description of the culture
It is a deciduous shrub orlow, up to 8 m in height, a tree, hazel, photo of which can be seen in the article, has a decorative and attractive appearance. Oval or spherical dense crown and light smooth gray-brown bark with transverse bands create a pleasant impression. Flowering hazelnut occurs in early spring, even before the leaves blossom. Since hazel is a monoecious plant, beautiful staminate earrings, single or collected in bundles, and pistillate flowers appear on it. Four bifurcated joint stamens make up a flower. Spring flowering hazelnut - a beautiful life-affirming spectacle. The fruit of the hazel is a nut. They are pubescent with a greenish plush and are united in a fruit crop by 3-5 or more pieces. Hazel grows annually, alternating abundant and moderate yields. Beginning with the 5th-8th year fruiting is characteristic of a culture such as hazel (hazel). Planting and nursing are determined by the method of planting.
Nuts: composition and use
The matured kernels of hazel are not only very tasty, butand the most calories from all kinds of nuts. They exceed in nutrition the products produced by the meat and dairy industry. Contained in nuts fatty oils, trace elements, vitamins, amino acids and their unique compounds give the kernels excellent taste and medicinal qualities. Their use in food is useful for children and adults, it contributes to the multifaceted development of the young organism, as well as the prolongation of life and the maintenance of health at a qualitative level in people of mature age. Nuts are eaten raw or roasted, added as a filler in the production of chocolate, confectionery, oriental sweets. A nutritious oil with excellent taste is a component of salads, hot and cold snacks. The long shelf life of hazelnut fruit (3-4 years), during which they do not lose their basic qualities, is another advantage of this unique product.
Tannins in the bark and leaves of hazel, tannins, essential oils can effectively use them in the perfume and pharmaceutical industries.
High bactericidal properties of the hazel are successfullyused in the treatment of skin diseases (neurodermatitis, eczema, etc.). Young leaves of the plant relieve painful manifestations in liver lesions, and the purified fruits (without the brown husks) in a mixture with honey strengthen the hematopoietic function of the body and relieve rheumatic pains. Vodka infusions of nuts are successfully used in the treatment of pulmonary problems, bronchitis, fever, kidney stones. Grated kernels, carefully mixed with egg white, are an excellent remedy for chemical and thermal burns. Broths of the spring bark relieve feverish conditions with malaria, nut oil helps in the fight against helminths, is used in cosmetology.
Leshchina: photos showing decorative
No less important are the decorative qualities of the bush. Leshchina is appreciated by landscape designers of garden areas due to dense foliage, which in autumn is painted in yellow and red tones. There are also very picturesque forms of hazel with a wonderful crimson shade of leaves, which persists throughout the season. This is the so-called hazelnut red-leaved. The use of such unusual plants in the backyard landscape design will not only beautify the space, but will make it unique and unrepeatable.
Red-leafed and green-leafed hazel
To ensure annual fruition,planted on the site of mutually pollinated varieties. Hazel "first-born" and "Tambov early" are just pollinators of red-leaved forms. By forming a sufficient number of winter-resistant male inflorescences, they prevent loss of yield. Since in winter, hazel often pollens pollen, but female flowers are preserved, which are subsequently pollinated by winter stocks of the pollinating variety. Types of hazelnut with green leaves are considered more winter-hardy. A hazel-fledged forest is vulnerable in the cold season. However, they are also famous for their frost resistance in the variety "Mariya Makarevich" and "Pushkin Red".
At the beginning of the last century IV Michurin, working on the acclimatization of southern hazelnut species, received winter-hardy crops. Subsequently, for the years of breeding, new varieties of hazelnut with excellent characteristics have been created, which are successfully growing today in both the southern and the moderate latitudes of Russia.
Hazelnut (hazel): planting and care
Hazelnut gives preference to oriental andnortheastern sections of low slopes. It is in these areas that there is minimal danger of burns or freezing. The haze is shade-tolerant, but permanent shading can lead to loss of yield and decorativeness. Select for planting should be protected from bright sunlight and strong winds areas with fertile, well drained neutral soils without underflooding by groundwater.In order to obtain stable walnut harvests, shrubs should be planted at an interval of 3 meters for the possibility of cross-wind pollination.
Reproduction of hazel
Planting hazel is a simple process, but requiringtime if the planting material is prepared by yourself. The hazel is propagated by seeds, by dividing a bush or by root layers, which are bent to the ground and, pinned, placed in grooves and covered with soil. The tops of the branches are gently lifted and tied to pegs. A year later, well-established layers can be transplanted to the chosen permanent location. Planting hazel seeds - a longer and more time-consuming process. First, stratification will be required, i.e., long-term cooling of seeded seeds simulating a biological winter. And secondly, with such reproduction, the main signs of the maternal culture change, and the variety is not preserved. Usually hazelnut seedlings are regenerated into a half-cell, which, however, is not inferior in taste and decorative qualities to the maternal form. Naturally, the time of the beginning of fruiting is also postponed. The seed material is ripe nuts - hazel. Planting and care is quite simple. Seeds are sown in the fall, deepening by 7-8 cm, or in the spring - by 5-6 cm. When planting seeds, hazel begins to bear fruit after 6-8 years, vegetative reproduction enables the young bush to enter fruiting for 3-4 years.
The bush grows at the expense of sleeping kidneys,located on the rhizome. 2-3-year-old shoots have weak roots. They need to grow a couple more years. Well settles with roots over 15 cm are well established. Acquired or grown walnut seedlings can be planted in spring or autumn. Pre-planting treatment of the plant consists in pruning dead or broken roots and dipping them into a dung-clay blotch that protects from decay. The foliage falling from the hazel tree introduces into the soil the full complex of nutrients necessary for culture. Therefore, it is necessary to add exactly such soil to the planting pit for the seedlings - from under the bush of an adult hazelnut - and humus. The seedling is neatly arranged in a hole, sprinkled with soil and, ramming, well spilled. The root neck of the plant should rise 3-4 cm above the ground. The final stage of planting is the mulching of the soil in the place where the plant was planted like hazel (hazel). Planting and care at this stage are not burdensome for the gardener.
Provision of decorative bush is notdelivers a special hassle to the grower. It is not practically cut off, removing only the broken branches and unnecessary shoots. Form a bush in 6-8 barrels and subsequently only maintain its appearance. A vigorous shrub is 70-90 years old, but bears fruit in the first 20 years. Because approximately from this age, you should begin replacing the old trunks with a new shoot, each year cutting 2-3 trunks. Imitating the tree, choose one trunk and at a half-meter height form 4-6 skeleton branches. Be sure to remove the entire basal shoot. The magnificent design of the garden area is achieved by minimal costs, which are required by the decorative culture hazel (hazel). Planting and grooming, as well as trimming hazelnuts are simple manipulations, nevertheless bringing aesthetic satisfaction and a good harvest of nuts.