Idiopathic urticaria: causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment
Idiopathic urticaria is a fairly common phenomenon, which is chronic in the form of red rashes and blisters. Anyone can suffer from this disease, regardless of gender, age or ethnicity. Various factors, both pathological and physiological, can provoke the development of such processes, ranging from an insect sting to intolerance to a particular food product.
The clinical picture of the disease
Symptoms of idiopathic urticaria are most often manifested in the form of an urticarial rash and severe itching that persists on the skin for more than a month and a half. Appearing blisters have clear outlines, while the size of the rash remains within 1.5 mm to 5 cm. Of course, they are a serious cosmetic defect leading to moral and social discomfort.
A characteristic difference in idiopathic urticaria is the constant updating of the blisters. The main symptoms of the disease include:
- the appearance of rash bright red;
- the appearance of round or oblong blisters filled with fluid;
- the appearance of itching in places of rash, which is especially aggravated in the evening;
- prolonged course of the disease, which lasts more than one and a half months;
- deterioration of the patient's psycho-emotional state.
The disease is diagnosed on the basis of anamnesis, clinical manifestations and laboratory results. The treatment is the administration of second-generation antihistamines, sorbents, enzymes, glucocorticoids, and other supplementary therapy drugs.
Modern medicine can not name the exact cause of this disease. It is believed that the development of this pathology can be provoked by the simultaneous impact of several adverse factors at once. However, chronic idiopathic urticaria can also occur as an independent disease. It can act as an element of clinical manifestations in the development of other pathologies.
Symptoms that are manifested by the type of this disease may develop in the background:
- cancer, less benign tumors, and no matter in which area the undesirable process takes place;
- systemic collagenosis;
- autoimmune diseases;
- rheumatoid arthritis;
- endocrinological disorders;
- kidney diseases or abnormalities of the digestive system;
- manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus;
- Sjogren's syndrome;
- Hodgkin's disease or Hodgkin's disease;
- parasitic invasions;
- hormonal imbalance;
- dental diseases.
The external provocative factors most often include: various dust and pollen of plants, insect bites and exposure to household chemicals, cold and exposure to sunlight, occupational hazards and stresses.
It has been observed that in some cases, the treatment of symptoms of idiopathic urticaria occurs against the background of food allergies, manifested as a result of the use of certain foods, as well as food additives and flavor enhancers that make up their composition.
The culprit of the development of this disease may be some pharmacological agents and drugs for their inadequate intake.
In addition, idiopathic urticaria (photos are presented just below) may appear due to genetic predisposition.
Varieties of the disease
The clinical picture of the manifestation of this disease may be acute or chronic. The first variant of the development of the disease includes cases when a person turned for help for the first time, and the pathological process itself arose as a result of late treatment in the complete absence of other diseases. However, chronic idiopathic urticaria is more common (treatment in this case can last for six months or more, but does not bring the expected result).
In addition to acute and chronic forms, doctors distinguish:
- true (expressed as the response of the immune system to the allergen);
- pseudoallergic (proceeds without the participation of the immune system);
- contact (with long wearing jewelry, watches or belts made from materials that provoke allergies).
The main symptoms of idiopathic urticaria
Specific clinical manifestations may vary in severity, but in any case, a bright pink or purple rash first appears on the body, then watery blisters form, with a clear outline.It is worth noting the constant updating of lesions, as well as unbearable itching and swelling at the site of injury. It is necessary to take into account the fact that a typical lesion of the skin by erythematous elements in this disease does not exist.
Other symptoms of idiopathic urticaria (ICD-10 is assigned the code L50.2) can be:
- itching and scratching, which can lead to secondary infection;
- mood swings;
- nervousness, irritation;
- headaches, malaise;
- nausea and vomiting;
- development of angioedema;
- frequent constipation, suddenly changing to loose stools;
- burning sensation and feeling of dry skin;
- loss of consciousness.
Of course, a person suffering from signs of idiopathic urticaria (whose treatment will be discussed a little later) experiences aesthetic and social discomfort.
Diagnosis of the disease
Primary diagnosis of the disease is carried out on the basis of anamnesis collection and examination of the affected skin areas. The allergist-immunologist or dermatologist can accurately determine whether a rash is an idiopathic urticaria, based on the testimony of laboratory tests.
The analysis of the analysis is based on the study of biochemical and general clinical blood tests, scraping from the affected skin area, a sample of fluid inside the wheals, a coprogram, immunological and hormonal tests, and also tests for allergic reactions. In addition, bacteriological and parasitological studies of feces are necessarily carried out, flora crops from foci of chronic infections and markers of viral hepatitis, HIV, Wasserman reaction are studied.
Ultrasound examinations of the abdominal cavity organs and endoscopy with analysis of Helicobacterium can be prescribed as an instrumental study of the etiological dermatitis.
Treatment of idiopathic urticaria in adults
A hypoallergenic diet that does not contain products containing allergens is recommended for patients who have symptoms of this disease. If possible, the effects of warm and cold air are eliminated. From everyday life, wearing jewelry and cosmetics with an unknown composition is excluded. Also carefully selected photoprotective means.
In the treatment of this disease, complex therapeutic techniques are used, which are based on agents that reduce the sensitivity of the immune system. Usually this:
- glucocorticoids (used in severe cases or localized rash on the face).
The following drugs may be prescribed as an additional treatment:
- Means normalizing metabolism.
Hormonal ointments also help to get rid of idiopathic urticaria. In some cases (with a severe or complicated form of the disease), the use of cytostatics and plasma exchange is effective.
Often, physiotherapeutic methods of treatment (UV, UHF-therapy, electrophoresis) are prescribed as additional ones.
Treatment in young patients
Idiopathic urticaria in children is more common in babies with atopic diseases. This disease has the same symptoms as in adults, the same factors can trigger the development of allergic etiological dermatitis of this species.Treatment of this disease in children is carried out for a long time, using similar means in accordance with the age dosage.
Very often, different methods of alternative medicine are prescribed as maintenance therapy, which contribute to relieving inflammation and eliminating itching. However, it is not recommended to prescribe such procedures independently, since such measures may aggravate the patient's condition and provoke a new attack of allergy.
Traditional methods of treatment
When choosing a folk treatment method, it is necessary to remember about the special sensitivity of the affected skin, therefore, first of all, certain steps should be taken, leading to a reduction in discomfort:
- It is necessary to review and change the wardrobe, preferring things of free cut from natural fabrics. Wearing tight synthetic clothes in this case will not only be uncomfortable and unpleasant, but also disrupt the necessary microcirculation of air between the fibers of the fabric. This can lead to additional irritation on the skin.
- After taking a bath or shower to wipe the body, you must use soft and well-absorbing towels that will not irritate the skin and traumatize it.
- It is believed that to cope with the appearance of lesions on the skin helps fresh celery juice. This tool is recommended to use in the morning on an empty stomach in the amount of 2/3 cup. The same tool is used for the treatment of skin lesions affected by a rash: the damaged areas are wiped with juice or a compress is made on its basis.
- The rhizomes of calamus are considered to be no less effective: the dried raw materials are ground to a state of flour and taken orally every night before bedtime, washed down with warm boiled water. It is recommended to use ½ tsp at a time.
- Very often, patients with idiopathic urticaria are recommended to take alkaline baths, for the preparation of which 200 grams of ordinary baking soda is dissolved in warm, but not hot water (37-38 ° C) and thoroughly mixed.
The duration of such a procedure should not exceed twenty minutes. Soda baths may have some contraindications, so before you assign them their use, you should consult with experts.
Many people faced with the problem of treatment of idiopathic urticaria, recommend the use of compresses and lotions, made on the basis of decoctions of healing herbs.These are, first of all, infusions and decoctions from the series, chamomile, calendula, peppermint, celandine, lime-colored, dill, roots and leaves of celery or parsley and bay leaves.
However, we must not forget that not all organisms tolerate the use of such techniques in the same way. To eliminate possible undesirable effects in the body before using any folk remedies, you should consult with a specialist.
In the chronic form of idiopathic urticaria, recurrent manifestations are characteristic, with blistering in various parts of the body, followed by remission for a short time.
In the period of exacerbations, the appearance of weakness, headache, fever, and allergies is possible. Food allergies can cause swelling of the mucous membranes of the digestive system, vomiting and nausea. An agonizing court is often accompanied by neurotic disorders. Recurrent manifestations with symptoms of increasing severity may be harbingers of idiopathic anaphylaxis.
Disease prevention and prognosis
Prevention of idiopathic urticaria and minimizationpossible problems in the treatment of this disease involves the use of conventional preventive measures. Such an impact is, above all, maintaining a healthy lifestyle and a balanced daily diet, avoiding bad habits and reducing staying in too hot or cold conditions, abandoning products containing allergic components and avoiding stressful situations.
It is extremely important to take only those medications prescribed by the doctor, since inadequate treatment of any diseases can lead to an increase in rash on the type of idiopathic urticaria.
We should not forget that, under certain indications, it is necessary to regularly visit doctors for the purpose of a full preventive examination. Allergic poliologicheskoe dermatosis of this type is not dangerous for the patient's life, but it can cause serious aesthetic, moral and sociological discomfort.
However, it must be remembered that the outcome of the disease is largely determined by comorbidities. We must not forget that the disease triggered by a disease can have its own complications.