Intangible assets of an enterprise: valuation, cost, depreciation, accounting, transactions

Fixed assets are transferred to the balance of the company as a result of the contribution of the founders, the implementation of long-term investments, the exchange of property or donations. A document confirming the right to own and dispose of such an asset may be a patent, contract or certificate of registration. In this article you will learn how to properly register, amortize and write off intangible assets of the organization.

Definition

Intangible assets - cash invested in fixed assets of an enterprise that generate income for an organization or create conditions for its receipt. This definition is presented in article 138 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation. In the position of the accounting unit "Accounting IA", which is valid from 01/01/2001, there is another interpretation. Intangible assets - a part of the property of an organization that meets the following conditions:

  • the possibility of identifying the object;
  • use in the production, provision of services or the needs of the enterprise;
  • has been in operation for more than 12 months;
  • the object is not intended for further sale;
  • availability of documents proving the rights of the owner.

This category also includes intellectual property, such as:

  • owner's right to a trademark;
  • patents;
  • copyright on programs and databases.

Intangible assets also include:

  • expenses associated with the organization of a legal entity recognized as constituent documents;
  • business reputation.

The following objects are not subject to IA:

  • arising from copyright and other contracts for works of science, culture and art, as they belong to a specific individual;
  • on know-how and technologies that are not documented with state registration.

intangible assets

Thus, the objects of intangible assets include buildings, structures, household equipment, office furniture and all other items that can be used by the company in the process. They are divided into production and non-production, the purpose of which is clear from the name itself.

Valuation of intangible assets

The cost of the asset includes: the amount of accrued wages and social contributions to workers; material costs; depreciation; amounts paid to intermediaries for the provision of services for information-consulting, technical works; other costs associated with the creation of inventory. IA can be made at the expense of attracted capital. But interest on loan servicing should not be included in their value.

Intangible assets in accounting are valued at historical cost - this is the sum of the actual cash costs for the purchase and commissioning or manufacturing of an asset. If the object was purchased for foreign currency, then this figure must be converted to the national currency at the rate of the central bank effective on the date of purchase.

The main intangible assets are assessed for such types of value:

1. Recovery, which is calculated on the basis of the results of the audit carried out in connection with the purchase of inventory according to the following formula:

Fvos = Fperv * Kper, where

Fperv - the carrying amount of the OS;

Nper - revaluation index.

2Residual value - the difference between the initial price of the unit and the amount of accrued compensation for moral and physical deterioration. This figure should be reflected in the balance sheet. It shows the value of the OS, which has not yet been written off on products.

3. Liquidation - the amount of funds remaining after the implementation of the object. That is, it is the profit from the sale of scrap metal and other useful waste.

intangible assets of the transaction

Intangible assets of an enterprise are also subject to revaluation and determination of replacement cost in order to identify the real prices of aggregates used in production or in stock. This procedure can take place once a year or regularly for five years. Depending on how long the facility continues to be used, the funds allocated for the revaluation are attributed to retained earnings. Its size depends on the method of depreciation.

Posting

The document confirming the movement of the operating system, is an act of acceptance. It must include the cost of the objects received, the period of their use, the rate of deductions and other details that will be required for uniform depreciation.Accounting for intangible assets is carried out in special cards, which are issued separately for each item of inventory.

The amount of costs associated with the purchase and commissioning of the object is displayed on the debit of account 08-5. These include:

  • customs fees (if any);
  • money paid under an agreement on the transfer of ownership from the seller;
  • non-refundable taxes, patent fees associated with the acquisition of IA;
  • remuneration of intermediaries;
  • cost of consulting services;
  • other costs associated with the purchase and commissioning of the asset.

major intangible assets

If an organization has several objects of significant value, it is recommended to open several sub-accounts, according to the IA qualifications.

Very often, organizations acquire for use computer programs (Medoc, Consultant +, 1C: Accounting, etc.), the copyright of which remains with the developers. Such assets should be recorded in an off-balance sheet account. Payments for the right to use the organization should include the costs of the reporting period. Fixed one-time payment is indicated in the debit of account 97 "Deferred expenses" and is charged to costs during the term of the agreement.

Business reputation

It is calculated as the difference between the value of the purchased-sold organization and the final figure of its balance sheet on the day of the transaction. It can be positive and negative. The first is a premium paid by the buyer in anticipation of future cash receipts. It is recorded as an inventory item at debit 04 "IA" and credit 76 "Settlements with other creditors". Negative rate - discount from the price that the buyer received. It is evenly deducted from the operating income of the organization.

Intangibles: postings

All operations associated with the adoption, accounting and write-off of objects should be displayed in the balance sheet. The movement of fixed assets is displayed under the item "Intangible assets" (account 04). The debit indicates the cost of posting objects, and the loan - depreciation and disposal. Depending on how the fixed assets were credited, the corresponding entries are formed in the database.

Operation

DT

CT

Amount

1

IA is received from the founders as a contribution to the share capital

08-5

75-1

Price under the contract (act)

1.1

Commissioning

01

08-5

Initial cost

2

Free of charge

08-5

98-2

Market price

3

OS detected during inventory

04

91-1

Real value

4

Purchased intangible assets

08-5

60

Contract price without VAT

4.1

VAT

19-2

60

Value Added Tax

4.2

Registration

04

08-5

Original price

5

Manufacturing OS

08-5

10, 70, 69, 02

Sum of costs

5.2

Commissioning

04

08-5

Original price

Write-off cost

Any OS object is subject to physical and moral deterioration. The first occurs during the operation of the unit from both intensive use and as a result of exposure to natural conditions. Physical deterioration depends on the quality of the materials used in production, the degree of equipment load, the duration of the organization’s operation, the characteristics of the technological process, and the qualifications of workers and service personnel.

When analyzing the condition of the OS, it is necessary to calculate the coefficient of wear of the units in one of the following ways: by the method of expert assessment or on the basis of the service life. The first option is used extremely rarely. In the second case, the coefficient is calculated by the ratio of the actual service life of the unit to the standard. To reduce the unit's wear and tear, it is necessary to ensure its normal operating conditions, timely and high-quality repair and maintenance. Employees can influence this item of expenditure on their own.

Obsolescence is the depreciation of equipment due to the fact that it is no longer capable of producing high-quality products by its parameters. It occurs under the influence of NTP.

fixed assets and intangible assets

The use of intangible assets is reflected in the accounting unit under the item "depreciation". These costs are included in the cost of products manufactured on this equipment and are gradually written off during the period of its use. If this period is not specified in the documents, then it is considered that the accounting of intangible assets should be carried out for 20 years (if the company does not cease its activities earlier). These costs are recorded in passive account 05.

Depreciation of intangible assets may be proportional to the volume of manufactured products, linearly or with the option of decreasing balance. The first involves the calculation of the amount of depreciation, based on the natural volume of manufactured products in the reporting period.

If the annual amount of deductions is equal to the original value of the object multiplied by the norm calculated on the basis of the period of use of the equipment, then this is a linear method.

There is a third option.With the method of decreasing balance, the amount of deductions for 12 months is calculated from the residual value of the object at the beginning of the year and the rate of write-off. Fully depreciated assets are recorded in the accounting statement in a conditional estimate. The sum of such objects should be related to financial results.

But not all intangible assets in accounting are subject to depreciation. Compensation of physical and moral depreciation is not charged on objects that:

- are property of budget enterprises;

- received by non-profit organizations as target revenues and are not used to generate income;

- created at the expense of targeted state funds;

- have the purchased rights to the results of intellectual activity, if the contract states that payment must be made in parts within a certain period.

Donated assets whose value was not included in the tax base should also not be depreciated. Among them are the following:

- property transferred in the framework of targeted financing;

- objects donated by educational institutions;

- property donated to the Russian Federation;

- property received in accordance with international agreements.

Examples of calculating depreciation

Condition. The actual cost of software developed by the organization is 100 thousand rubles. The term of use is 4 years. The write-off rate: 100/4 = 25 thousand rubles.

Period

Initial cost, thousand rubles.

Amount of deductions for 12 months, thousand rubles

Accumulated depreciation of intangible assets, thousand rubles

Residual value, thousand rubles

Linear method

First year

100

25

25

75

Second year

100

25

50

50

Third year

100

25

75

25

Fourth year

100

25

100

-

Diminishing residue method

First month

100

(100 x 3/48) = 6.250

6.250

93.750

Second month

100

(93.750 x 3/47) = 5.984

12.234

81.516

Third month

100

(81.516 x 3/46) = 5.316

17.550

63.966

etc.

The method of writing off the amount of depreciation in proportion to the volume of work performed is calculated on the basis of the actual volume of manufactured products per month and the ratio of the actual value of IA and the planned amount of work for the entire useful life of the object.

Example. According to the patent, the initial cost of which is 50 thousand rubles, for 2 years the company plans to produce 100 thousand pairs of shoes: 70% in the first 12 months, 30% in the next period.

Term

Initial cost, thousand rubles.

Volume of production, thousand rubles

The annual amount of deductions, thousand rubles.

Total depreciation, thousand rubles

Residual value, thousand rubles

First year

50

70

(50 x 70/100) = 35

35

15

Second year

50

30

15

50

-

The amount of amortization of intangible assets is accrued from the first day of the month after the object is put into operation until the full repayment of its value (write-off of the asset from the balance).

valuation of intangible assets

The monthly amount of such payments is reflected by the following entry: on the credit of account 05 from the debit of general production (26), general economic (25) expenses or main production (20).

Adjustment of miscalculated or accrued depreciation: Debit: 91-2 "Other income and expenses." Credit: 05.

The amounts of corrections specified in DT 91 are included in other expenses of the organization. This article also includes charges for objects leased. Purchased goodwill is written off over a period of 20 years (and only in a linear fashion). For objects of intellectual property, a special statement is maintained every month, in which the amount of deductions is indicated.

The write-off of accrued depreciation on the retired objects (after sale, donation, etc.) is reflected in the following wiring:

Debit: Depreciation of IA.

Credit: Disposal of IA.

Here is how the accounting of fixed assets, intangible assets of the enterprise.

Retirement

Fixed assets and intangible assets of the enterprise, sooner or later must be fully written off. The decision on liquidation is made in the event that the object is physically and morally obsolete during use, and there is no sense in restoring it. Until 2013, this was based on the conclusion of a special commission, which was created by a separate order of the leadership. After the entry into force of the Federal Law No. 402-FZ, these actions have received a recommendatory character.

Of course, it is possible to create a commission, which will indicate a well-established intra-company control. For this purpose, an internal order is issued, in which all members of the commission, materially responsible persons for the liquidation of the facility and the chief accountant should be indicated. Then a collective inspection of the inventory takes place and a decision is taken on its liquidation or restoration.

intangible assets of an enterprise

If the commission decided to write off the OS from the accounting, then it should indicate the reason: physical or moral deterioration, an accident, etc. It is also necessary to establish the total value of intangible assets that are subject to liquidation, and the remaining parts that can be sold or used in the production process.Upon completion of the inspection, an act is drawn up. The form is free, but some use old samples (No. OS-4, OS-4a). The document must be signed by all members of the commission. Further on its basis the object is deducted from the account. The corresponding entry is made in the card or inventory book. The parts and materials that may still be needed after the disposal of the object are accounted for on the basis of a special invoice.

Reflection of dismantling in accounting

The data on the disposed object can be reflected in the company's accounts in two ways:

- in the form of residual value, if the term of use of the object according to the documents has not yet ended,

- as the amount of funds invested in its dismantling.

These costs are borne by other expenses of the company reporting period.

Nuances of calculating the value added tax:

- if the dismantling is conducted by a hired third-party organization, then the amount of the tax credit should be taken into account in the usual manner;

- VAT cannot be recovered for objects that have been fully depreciated, except in cases where the object to be liquidated has several unclear amounts written off on the accounts;

- if the management decides to sell the details remaining after the write-off of the object, then you need to charge the amount of tax in the obligation.

use of intangible assets

The formula for calculating the amount of tax that can still be recovered is as follows:

VAT = Pr * Ost \ First, where

Pr - amount accepted for deduction

Ost (first) - the value of the object, accounting (initial), without revaluation.

In the case of liquidation of the object to recover the amount of VAT is not required. But in this case, you will have to deal with the tax inspectorate in court. Although, most likely, the decision will be made in the direction of the tax payer, as the law does not spell out clear instructions on how to restore the VAT amount.

When calculating the income tax, the residual value of the asset object, as well as the amount of funds spent on dismantling the equipment, should be attributed to non-operating expenses. Materials, components and parts should also be assigned to this cost item, regardless of whether they will be used further or not.

An example of the reflection operations for the disposal of the OS

LLC Zakat, which operates on a common tax system, has a fully self-cushioned machine on its balance sheet.The initial cost of this unit is 120 thousand rubles. Management has decided to eliminate it. An agreement was signed with contractors to dismantle equipment in the amount of 11,800 r. After the dismantling of the equipment, there remained materials suitable for use, with a total cost of 36 thousand rubles.

DT

CT

Amount, thousand rubles

Operation

01 subaccount "Disposal of OS"

01 subaccount "OS in operation"

120

Unit write-off

02

01 subaccount "Disposal of OS"

120

Depreciation amount

19

76

1,8

Charging the amount of VAT for the services of contractors

68

19

1,8

VAT deductible

91 subaccount "Other expenses"

76

10

Reflecting dismantling costs

76

51

11,8

Contractor fees

10

91

36

Capitalization of materials remaining after liquidation

Data entry in 1C

In the typical configuration of the program there are special documents for registration of each transaction with intangible assets.

The list of all used objects (their name and purpose) is stored in the IA directory. For registration of the purchase operation, the document OS Receipt is used. It is necessary to fill in the following details: the counterparty, the contract, the currency, the name of the IA, and its tax assignment.The operation to create an asset is reflected in the document "Receipt of goods and services" with the view "Construction Objects". It contains the same details as the previous one. In the cost item you need to select "Other", in the "Character" - "Investments in IA".

Commissioning is reflected in the document “Acceptance to accounting of intangible assets”. It is necessary to choose one of three types of work:

  • Acceptance of accounting - commissioning.

  • Construction objects - registration of created IA.

  • Enter the initial balances.

In the tabular part of the document, you need to specify the operating system, which is put on record, and the method of reflecting depreciation. Depending on the specified accounts, the corresponding expense items will be reflected in the analytics. Accrual of depreciation in "1C: Accounting" is produced by the document "Closing of the month." Before creating it, you need to make sure that the option of writing off the cost of the finished products is selected in the IA card.

Conclusion

In the course of its activities, the company uses equipment, buildings, structures and other operating systems. These intangible assets in accounting are reflected in account 04. Such units are subject to moral and physical deterioration.The amount of expenses incurred by the company is reflected in the balance sheet under the item “Depreciation”. By decision of the chief accountant and management, it may be charged linearly, depending on the volume of manufactured products or the method of diminishing balance. Fully depreciated intangible assets must be liquidated. All these operations should be properly displayed in the accounting records.

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