Morphological analysis of the participle: the method of implementation
A participle is an unconjugated form of a verb, possessing a certain lexical meaning - to show the procedural sign of the subject. The distinctive feature of this is that it has signs of two others at once - an adjective and a verb. The name comes from the Latin word "participium", which means "taking part".
What did the participle borrow from the verb?
Morphological analysis of the participle requires a serious approach, since when performing this procedure, it is necessary to take into account the large number of available signs from the verb and the adjective. The verb and participle are connected with similar lexical meaning, and sometimes it actively makes itself felt. For example, the verb “blush” has the meaning “become red”, the participle “blushing” has the same meaning. In addition, the verb and participle have common morphological features that appear when analyzing the categories of the species, transitivity and intransigence, voice and tense.Of particular note are the passive participles that are formed from transitive verbs. Participles and verbs can equally control a noun in a sentence; this is another similar feature.
Signs of the adjective in participles
Communion has similarities with the adjective. First of all, we are talking about the same grammatical signs (suffix, ending, basis). Also, these two parts of speech have the same dependent categories of the nominal type (gender, number, case), which will depend on the categories of the noun with which the participle agrees. Passionate past participles have complete and concise forms, which is why they resemble quality adjectives. A participle can borrow syntactic functions in a sentence from an adjective and play the role of a consistent definition or the nominal part of a composite named predicate.
Morphological analysis of the participle: school level
To understand how to parse the participle, it is necessary to determine how to perceive it: as an independent part of speech or a specific form of the verb.It is in determining the status of the participle that the most difficult problem arises, which is reflected in the reference books on linguistics. In all textbooks used in secondary schools, the participle is described as a special form of the verb. It is there that the scheme of parsing the participle is given, which corresponds to the understanding of this part of speech in the status of independent. Some linguists believe that if a participle plays the role of an independent part of speech, then its actual and suffering forms of the past and the present should be considered as separate words. In this case, the following parsing scheme should be used: indicate the participle in the initial form (noting the gender, number, case), morphological features of the word of constant type (return, time, type, passive / real) and non-permanent type (number, gender, form and ). In its form, the participle can be complete and incomplete, and the case is indicated only for the word that is in the first form. Then, indicate the syntactic role of the participle within the sentence.
Analysis of the sacrament at the university level
Morphological analysis of the participle is actively used not only in the study of the Russian language at the school level, but also at the university level. In the latter case, a more in-depth version of the analysis is used, which allows to obtain a complete picture of the word being studied, which can be useful if necessary to obtain information about its origin. This analysis is carried out according to the following scheme: the word inside the text, the part of speech, the categorical meaning, the initial form of the participle + the question to it and the semantic question are indicated. You should also indicate the verb base from which the participle was formed, along with the suffix used to create the word. Additional categories are indicated: type, return (indicated with actual participles), pledge, time and transitivity (indicated with actual participles). Also, when performing this analysis, you must specify the form of the participle (short or complete) and note its indicators; specify the noun with which it is consistent, and indicate the coordination categories (gender, number, case). Finally, you need to specify the syntactic functions of the participle.
How to make out a short participle?
Passionate participles have a full and short form and, thus, need special treatment. Morphological analysis of a brief participle is carried out according to the following scheme: the indication of the subject, the question for the participle, the initial form are indicated. It is also necessary to indicate a number of morphological features: time, type, recurrence, form, number, gender. It is not necessary to determine the loss here, since brief participles cannot be inclined. You also need to specify the syntactic function of the word within the sentence. Brief participles should be disassembled in a special way, they can vary in sorts and numbers. In the sentence they can play the role of the nominal part of the composite nominal predicate, this should be taken into account when performing the analysis. It should be remembered that short participles may coincide with short adjectives, and it is sometimes very difficult to distinguish them from each other. Brief adjectives may have the lexical meaning of an indication of an action, which is carried out in a specific time period. Brief passive participles usually signify a sign of an object that is the result of an act in the past.
What else can confuse brief participles?
According to some linguists, short passive participles may be similar to functional homonyms ending in “that” and “but”: covered, cleaned, smoked. These grammatical homonyms are called participial predicates (the words of the category of state) and are distinguished into a separate part of speech. Brief passive participles can be used in two-part sentences, they must necessarily be consistent with nouns and noun pronouns in some nominal categories. These word forms can perform the function of the nominal part of a composite nominal predicate.
Communion: morphological analysis of parts of speech
It is necessary to carry out morphological analysis of the participle to determine its membership in one form or another. Otherwise, when performing an analysis, you can make a serious mistake and indicate a part of speech incorrectly. If necessary, you can use reference books and additional literature, which allows to determine the part of speech as correctly as possible.
The special position of the sacrament in Russian
This part of speech has a dual nature, therefore it occupies a special place in the Russian language system. Back in 1757 M.V.Lomonosov said that the sacrament should be considered as a special part of speech, at that time such a decision was made on the basis of the existing ancient traditions. In the XX century, some linguists continued to lobby for this idea, arguing that the sacrament has every right to get a separate position. There was also a point of view according to which a participle should be considered the verbal form of an adjective. Now this opinion is not so popular, but his followers still insist on it. There is a third opinion, according to him, scientists agree with the hybridity of the participle, but claim that its connection with the verb is too strong. That is why it is not possible to allocate the sacrament into a separate category. Leading linguists of the 20th century adhere to this point of view, with its account the famous “Russian Grammar-80” was compiled, which is used today as one of the leading manuals on linguistics.