Paintings by Francisco Goya. Biography, the artist
The creative legacy of Francisco Goya - works, paintings - diverse and multifaceted. He left behind about 700 works performed in various genres. Approaching the sunset of life and loneliness forced to create Francisco Goya "black paintings". Take a look at one of the latest masterpieces of the master.
"Saturn devouring his son"
Saturn learned that he would be overthrown by one of his sons. To prevent this from happening, God devoured them. In complete insanity, with matted gray hair, goggling completely crazy eyes, Saturn already ate the baby’s head and arm.
His hands dug into the tender body and pierced him with blood. Some art critics see this work as an allegory. Perhaps it symbolizes Spain devouring its children. According to other opinions, Saturn is a bloody French revolution or even Napoleon. We will return to the “black paintings”. For now let's look at the biography of Francisco Goya.Pictures with the description will be presented below.
Francisco José de Goya i Lucientes was born on 03/30/1746 in the village of Fuendetodos, near Zaragoza. The family was neither rich nor completely impoverished. Franco was the youngest of the three sons of José Goya and Gracia Lucientes. His father was engaged in gilding altars. In Zaragoza, children received only the elementary basics of education. Francho soon was given to study drawing by the artist Lusano and Martinez.
Youth in Aragon
In the workshop, the young Goya copied Velasquez and Rembrandt. At the same time he managed to learn serenades and temperamental dances - fandago and Aragonese hotu, as well as to show his stormy temperament in street fights with the use of Navaja. As a result of one of the clashes, he had to flee to Madrid in 1766. In the self-portrait, we see a fine-looking young man, according to which you cannot say that this is a fighter, a bully and a seducer.In the capital, Goya sends her works to competitions organized by the Academy of Arts. At this time, he met with Francisco Bayeu, who subsequently will have a considerable influence on the life of the artist. The expected premium paintings by Francisco Goya do not receive.
Rome, Naples and Parma
Then the painter decides to go to Italy. There he studies the works of masters and paints. Francisco Goya earned the 2nd prize in Parma for the painting “Hannibal from the Alps Looks at the Conquered Land”.
Legends say that Francisco fell in love with a young nun and decided to kidnap her. This escapade was revealed, and in 1771 the young adventurer returned to his homeland.
At first, Goya works very successfully in her native Zaragoza. He painted the chapel with frescoes, then he was asked to paint the prayer house at the palace. Francisco Bayeu, mentioned above, offers him an order for painting the monastery near Zaragoza and introduces the artist to his beautiful sister, the golden-haired Josepha.
Ardent Goya seduces the maiden and is forced to go down the aisle. Births took place 4 months after marriage, but the child did not survive. The artist, having spent 39 years in marriage, will write only one portrait of his wife.
We see a clearly calm, seasoned and slightly sad woman who could endure all the antics of her unpredictable husband. Subsequently, she will give birth to five more children, of whom only one will survive.He, like his father, will become an artist, but he will not get such a gift and talent.
Shurin begins to help the career of a gifted artist. With his help, Goya receives a portrait order from Count Floridablanka. Then Goya is presented to the disgraced brother of the king Don Luis.
Don Luis invites Goya to write a portrait of his family. After that, the glory of the portrait painter among the king’s associates comes to Goya. He is increasingly receiving orders for paintings by Francisco Goya after he worked for the Duke of Osuna. He was also interested in Charles III himself, who made him a court painter. The next king, Charles IV, leaves Goya his position and even adds him a salary. At this time, Goya appends the noble prefix "de" to his surname. Nevertheless, while executing the portrait of limp Charles IV in the family circle with the absence of any desire to flatter the high family, Francisco Goya places Queen Marie-Louise in the center of the picture, since she controls Spain with the help of her favorite.On the left, at the easel, the artist draws his self-portrait. This picture is an unconditional masterpiece masterpiece, where all the space of the canvas is filled with soft light.The artist offered the men to dress in bright costumes, and women - in light thin translucent dresses. Their faces are realistic and with great virtuosity written out. Jewelry is made in the technique of impasto and sparkle when the flame of candles.
Illness and hard work
An incomprehensible disease caused deafness and partial loss of vision in Francisco Goya. He painted his famous paintings before his illness, being full of strength and joy. These are cardboards for lanes (there are about 60 of them) for the Prince of Asturias: “Dance on the Shore of Masanares”, “Mach and Masks”, “Fight in the Tavern”, “Umbrella”, “Launching the Serpent”. The artist will create his most wonderful creations at a mature age.
A young couple
The painting "Umbrella" was written among a series of cheerful tapestries. A young man closes his lovely lady with a Chinese umbrella from the bright sun. The scene is pretty static.The composition gives dynamics to it: in one direction the movement of a thin tree is directed, in the other - an umbrella. It is reinforced by the hands of young people: the direction of the hand of a young lady with a fan and the elbow of a young man, as well as the folds of the yellow skirt of a flirtatious person. This canvas captivates with its juicy cheerful color.He sets off the young unencumbered joy, which is imbued with this cloudless happiness. How much the "Umbrella" differs from the later Francisco de Goya, whose paintings were created under the influence of the Duchess of Alba! After the unrest, a satirical series of “Caprichos” will appear in the country.
Who are the Mahi
So called men and women who came out of the common people, impoverished residents of the provinces, people from the slums of Madrid. But women-Mahi interest us more, since Francisco José de Goya will write pictures with representatives of the aristocracy dressed in Max clothes. For example, Queen Marie-Louise of Parma or Duchess Alba. Maha from the common people - a woman with a sense of self-esteem, which can stand up for themselves. Under her clothes hidden knife. Dancing and songs max, as a kind of national exotic, attracted representatives of the upper classes.The Spanish aristocracy was not averse to playing dressing games. This could not miss Francisco José de Goya. Paintings "Makhi on the balcony" (Metropolitan Museum, 1816) and a portrait of Donna Isabel Porsel, he wrote under this impression and in memory of Duchess Alba. These are very famous painter paintings.
Free and proud city dwellers liked to depict the artist Francisco Goya. The pictures “Mach naked” and “Mach dressed” make up a double portrait. Works for a long time were in the boudoir of the Duchess of Alba.After her death in 1802, they went to the all-powerful Minister Manuel Godoy, and are now on display in the Prado. Relatives of the Duchess categorically denied that it was the 13 Duchess of Alba that was the model. Critics are increasingly beginning to think that the portraits depict the mistress of Manuel Godoy, Pepito Tuda. The image of two mysterious swings from Francisco Goya - the most famous paintings, not counting, of course, the "black". The legend of the love of the artist and the aristocrat remained and not refuted, and not confirmed. Rumors about their tumultuous romance, which lasted seven years, continue to circulate.
"Caprichos", which translates as "fads"
After the bloody French revolution, the nature of the artist's work is changing.
His graphics in the form of 80 satirical etchings was created in 1799. There is not a single bright picture in it, only darkness and tragedy. The strokes of his needles are sharp, scratching. Politics, social issues and religion - the artist touched on everything in his works: the ease of marriage, intimidation of children in their upbringing, their spoiling by their parents,debauchery and debauchery of men and women, charlatans of science. That was covered a great many. The most famous work of this cycle is "Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters." Fantasy sleepy dreams brings man intolerable horrors.
When in 1808 Charles IV, who was hated by the people of the country, abdicated power and handed over the throne to his son Ferdinand VII, the latter ruled the country for a short time, only a few weeks. His cunning lured to France. Napoleon, capturing the king, invaded Spain and with extreme cruelty suppressed popular resistance. For five years his brother Joseph occupied the royal throne, and Goya retained the position of court painter. This did not prevent him from writing in 1812 a portrait of Wellington. So he aroused the hate of Joseph. After the French were defeated by the Portuguese in 1813, the Spaniards and the British under the command of the Duke of Wellington, Ferdinand VII returned to his homeland in 1814. He believed that the painter collaborated with the occupiers and began to treat Goya worse and worse. In 1819, the artist buys a house in a suburb of Madrid.
This house is an old 74-year-old artist called "House of the Deaf".Goya loved to write at night, with an alarming flaming candlelight. His illness progressed and made him think of death. The painter painted the walls of two large rooms with oil on plaster with plots, as if taken from nightmares. These are 14 paintings. Themes he took both mythological and religious. In them, faded and gloomy, everything speaks harshly and directly about the futility of human hopes and death. Pictures of Goya painted for himself. This is evidenced by the fact that he wrote them not on canvas, but on the walls, without assuming that they will ever be displayed. The artist worked quickly using broad strokes, a palette knife, sponges. One piece shows how an unhappy dog is almost completely buried under quicksand. She will never get out. Visible only a raised head with longing in the eyes. She did not have long to live. This house was a solid kingdom of horror and darkness. In 1878, when the German banker Emil Erlanger bought the house, the paintings were transferred to canvas. At first they were shown in Paris, and then presented to the Prado Museum.
Late restless years
After the death of his wife in 1812, fate gives the artist a farewell smile: he sets up an acquaintance with Leocadia de Weiss. She is younger than him by 35 years.Leocadia divorces her husband. They had a daughter Rosarita. King Ferdinand VII bluntly tells the artist that he deserves only hanging.
Goya did not wait for such a prospect, and with his family left for Bordeaux, ostensibly for treatment.He will write a portrait of Leocadia, full of admiration. In the history of painting, Goya will forever remain a grim romantic. In 1828, the great Spaniard died, in 82 years. Only 17 days ago, he celebrated his birthday. The ashes of the painter will return to Spain only in 1919 and will be buried in the church of San Antonio de la Florida in Madrid, which he himself painted.