Rivers of Africa
The distribution of water in Africa is closelyis interconnected with climatic conditions and relief. Approximately half of the entire continent belongs to the areas of internal flow. This is mainly due to the fact that the territory receives a very small amount of precipitation. Those areas for which their large volume is characterized, differ widely developed water network. Thus, the rivers of Africa are distributed on the continent extremely unevenly.
The total annual flow on the continent isabout 5390 cubic meters. In this indicator, Africa is inferior to South America and Asia. In accordance with the area of basins, the volume of sewage, the extent, many rivers in Africa are considered the largest in the world.
The distribution of the runoff, as well as the water network,depends on various climatic factors, features of a relief, breeds in this or that area. Many rivers in Africa, not reaching the ocean, end in the inside of the hollows. Water network on virtually the entire continent has rainwater. The exception is the rivers and other reservoirs of deserts and semi-deserts. In these areas, stocks are enriched by sewage.
As the watershed servesEast African plateau. In this regard, almost all the stock goes to the Atlantic Ocean. The rivers of Africa are distinguished by the presence of a large number of waterfalls and rapids, they are practically unsuitable for navigation. However, they also have significant hydropower reserves.
In the areas of the equatorial belt, African riversare quite full all year long, forming a fairly dense river network. In the subequatorial belts they are full of water only in the rainy seasons. In dry tropical areas, there are practically no surface water bodies. But in these areas artesian basins are common. On the territory of the continent you can also find dry channels. They fill with water after occasional rains. For rivers in the subtropical belt, a rise in the water level is characteristic for the rainy season. While on the Mediterranean coast this happens in the winter.
The largest rivers on the mainland are Zambezi, Niger, Zaire (Congo).
The latter is considered to be the most abundant of all. In addition, the Congo takes the second place on the continent along the length after the Nile. The length of Zaire is 4,320 kilometers. Its pool area and volume is second only to the Amazon. Congo crosses the equator in two places and is full of water throughout the year. It flows along the ledges in the plateaus, due to which there are many waterfalls and rapids on it. The largest tributaries are the following: Kasai, Ubangi, Lukuga. Congo flows into the Atlantic Ocean.
The longest river on the mainland is the Nile. In addition, it has the largest length in the world. The length of the Nile River is 6,671 km. The area of the basin is 2870 thousand square kilometers. In the upper reaches the Nile rushes down the gorges. There are many waterfalls and rapids. On the flat terrain, the flow is fairly calm and slow; on this territory the river is called the White Nile. The largest right tributary flows from the Ethiopian highland. At the city of Khartoum, the White Nile and its tributary the Blue Nile merge. The bed becomes twice as wide.
The Nile crosses the Sahara without having tributaries here. Falling into the Mediterranean, forms a delta.
The largest river flowing into Africa is theThe Indian Ocean is considered Zambezi. Its length is 2660 kilometers. Victoria Falls, one of the largest in the world, is on this river. It has a width of one thousand eight hundred, and a height of one hundred and twenty meters.
The third in terms of area on the continent is the riverNiger. In the upper and lower reaches, it is distinguished by a large number of waterfalls and rapids. On the average, the Niger is a flat river. A significant part of its current crosses quite dry areas.