Rostov Kremlin: description, history. State Museum "Rostov Kremlin"
The Rostov Kremlin, whose history began in the sixteenth century, is an impressive and grandiose structure. It is very beautiful with its five temples, powerful ancient fortress walls and the Assumption Cathedral. The Rostov Kremlin also has a second name - the Bishop (or Metropolitan) courtyard.
History of the Rostov Kremlin
In 1670, construction began, the customer of which was Metropolitan Iona Sysoevich. According to his project, the complex of buildings was supposed to duplicate the paradise in the world according to the biblical description. In literature, it was presented as a garden surrounded by walls with towers. In the center of the buildings was located a picturesque pond. The Rostov Kremlin was finally completed only in 1683.
Kremlin stagnation times
Since 1787it almost ceased to be used, since the metropolis moved to Yaroslavl. Gradually, the Rostov Kremlin began to decline. Worship in the cathedral ceased to be held. The Metropolis even wanted to sell the entire complex for scrap. But urban merchants intervened in the fate of the architectural ensemble.
It allocated funds for the restoration of a magnificent complex. In 1883 the Rostov Kremlin was reopened. The Museum-Reserve of Antiquities, in which the complex has become, in 1886 came under the auspices of the last Russian emperor Nicholas II. In 1910, the pre-revolutionary State Duma finally assigned the All-Russian status to the Rostov Kremlin.
From the country's budget began to regularly allocate funds for the maintenance of the architectural complex. In 1953 there was a strong hurricane, as a result the Rostov Rostov Kremlin was badly damaged. Many buildings underwent restoration. And after a short time, the architectural ensemble rose again in its splendor.
It consists of three main areas: the Bishops' Court, Cathedral Square and the Metropolitan Garden, in which fruit trees are planted.On the territory of the complex there is the 5th head Assumption Cathedral of the Rostov Kremlin, whose history begins since the twelfth century. From one of those temples there was only Leontief Chapel, otherwise called the Cave. The relics of Bishop Leonty are kept in it.
In 1314 Bartholomew was baptized in the cathedral, which later became Rev. Sergius of Radonezh. Since the 1660s painted murals made by Guria Nikitin’s hands appeared on the walls of the temple. From the first creations to our days only fragmentary fragments have survived. From above, the original frescoes were covered with new layers. The exterior decorative details lend particular expressiveness to the cathedral.
The belfry of the Rostov Kremlin was built in the period from 1682 to 1687. It is located on the Cathedral Square. There are thirteen unique bells in the belfry, differing in weight and size. They were cast from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century. Almost all bells have names. Sysoy is the biggest. Its weight reaches almost 32 tons. "Sysoy" was named for the glory of Metropolitan Jonah.
The second large bell is named “Polyelin”. They called him, collecting people for church holidays.The weight of the Polyeleyny is almost sixteen tons. There are bells with the names of animals and birds: "Goat", "Swan" and "Baran". In Lent was used "Hunger". Now the entrance to the belfry is paid, but beating the bells is prohibited.
In the lower tier of the belfry there are a souvenir shop and a workshop with the name “Black-glazed ceramics”. This craft was mastered (and became traditional) on the land of Rostov in the sixteenth century. Ceramics are burned in a smoky flame without oxygen. As a result, the products become coal black, which is then painted with other colors. The workshop also shows the process of making souvenirs.
Rostov Kremlin: description of internal buildings
Administrative buildings were erected in the Metropolitan's Court, one of which housed a judgment order. In the seventeenth century, a 2-storey building appeared on the territory of the complex, next to which the Church of the Resurrection of Christ was built. It rests on high sub-racks with openings for asymmetric gates cut through in them.
They are double - pedestrian and travel. Under the church are the magnificent main gates of the Holy.To the left of the temple stood the Clock Tower. Now only a foundation remains of it, since in the nineteenth century there was a danger of the building collapsing.
The Rostov Kremlin had special buildings for clergy to live in. The rooms were called metropolitan mansions. At first they were two-storied, then the third tier appeared. After a time, the building was decorated externally. Today, mansions are recognized only by the ornamental belt and narrow windows on the first floor. The complex has built its own brewery and bakery.
Another magnificent building is the Red Chamber. It has two porches and is completed with two tents. The emperors and kings stayed there upon arrival. Another unique complex of buildings is the church of the Rostov Kremlin of the image of the Savior not made by hands. The lower base was erected in 1675. The economic services were located on the floor, while the Church, Refectory, and the Detention Chambers were located on the second tier.
The church is somewhat unusual. At the end of each of its facade is a triangular gable. It turns out that the building is covered for eight ramps. Inside the church is richly cleaned.More than half of the room is occupied by an elevation in front of the altar.
The Gate Church of St. John the Divine was built at last. In those days, it was considered the best structure. It differed from all other buildings in its exterior rich decor. The Church of Odigitria became the final point in the construction of the grand Rostov Kremlin.
The Kremlin walls and towers were erected after the completion of the main architectural ensemble. They have real loopholes and wide window openings, which is not typical for a fortress. The Kremlin walls became, rather, the external decoration of the Rostov Kremlin, than defensive fortifications. This is evident in the overall decor. Loopholes were added to keep the tradition.
Rostov Kremlin, a museum-reserve of architecture, has become a part of the history of Soviet and Russian cinema. It was on these walls that the pursuit of famous actors of the most popular comedy film “Ivan Vasilyevich Changes Profession” was filmed. In 2010, in the Rostov Kremlin were filming the series "The Split".
Today, the Rostov Kremlin has become a museum of national importance. It contains the largest collection of enamel. For the art gallery allocated several rooms.Some exhibit noble exhibits. Inside the White House (previously was the dining room for priests) is an exhibition of antiquities.