Serbian Republic: origin, symbols, economy and population
On the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1992, the Serbian Republic was self-proclaimed. As a result of the signing of the Dayton Agreement (1995), it became part of the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina, but at the same time a separate state with its own president, flag, coat of arms and its own government.
Serbian Republic: short description
Republic has a little history. But the Bosnian Serbs living on its territory have long wanted to become independent. And they thought about it for the first time in 1992, when Bosnia and Herzegovina decided to secede from Yugoslavia.
The Republic is located on the Balkan Peninsula and its area is 24 thousand km ². It is located at the junction of two geographical areas: the Mediterranean and Pannogskogo, without access to the sea. The Republic serves as an intermediate link between the Federation of BiH and two Croatian regions. Borders are internationally recognized.
Political structure, constitution, elections, symbols
The form of government is a parliamentary republic, where the government and the president are elected by the people. In the entire history, since 1992, the Republika Srpska had seven presidents. They are elected for 4 years, but not more than for 2 consecutive terms. In 2014, the last President of the Republika Srpska, Milorad Dodik, was elected, who already went for a second term.
The main body of the government is the government, which consists of 16 ministers, eight of whom must be Serbs, five Bosniaks and three Croats. All powers are established by the Constitution and laws.
The Constitution, adopted in 1992, is the main law and consists of 12 chapters and 140 articles.
The Republic, like other states, has three main symbols - the flag, the emblem and the anthem. The coat of arms was adopted in 2008. The national anthem was replaced in 2008, as the former, according to the statement of the Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina, was considered unconstitutional. The flag of the Republika Srpska was adopted in 1992 and is based on a red, blue and white tricolor with a coat of arms. But since this emblem is unconstitutional, the flag is also considered unofficial.However, they did not replace it in the future.
The republic is actually an independent state. But the rights of the authorities are severely restricted by the governing bodies of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the High Representative.
Republika Srpska: the capital
In 1995, after the signing of the Dayton Agreement and the Treaty of Paris, the capital from Pale was moved to the city of Banja Luka, which is the business and economic center. Live here 218 thousand people.
Banja Luka is a historic city, the first mention of which is found in the annals of the XV century. During its 500th anniversary, the city was in the possession of different states. At first it belonged to Turkey, then in 1878 it was captured by Austria-Hungary, and it was during this period that the city received a great development. Since 1918 it became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, and after the Second World War it became part of the Croatian state.
In 1969, the city was very badly hit by an earthquake. But it was possible not only to restore it, but also to rebuild new quarters. Since 1995, it has become the de facto capital of the new republic.
Location and Administrative Division
The Serbian Republic is geographically divided into eastern and western parts due to the fact that the city of Brcko received the status of a separate district.Most are located in Bosnia and, according to the law, consist of 6 regions, 7 cities and 57 communities. The structure includes such cities as Banja Luka, Zvornik, Bielina, Doboi, Prijedor, Istochno-Sarajevo and Trebinje. Communities may consist of one or several localities.
The main source of income for the republic is industry. Namely: the energy complex, metallurgy, wood processing, textile industry, as well as mining.
About 30% of the population is employed in industry. The main economic center, as already mentioned, is the capital - Banja Luka.
The Serbian Republic actively cooperates with foreign economic partners, the main of which are Russia, Italy and Serbia. The main goods that the state exports are textiles, products of the timber processing complex and metallurgy.
In addition to the industrial complex, construction is also developing in the republic, where 4.5% of the total working-age population is employed. As well as agriculture, which employs 30% of the population, but its share in GDP is gradually decreasing.
In 2013, a census was conducted, which determined the national composition of the republic. 82% of the total population were Serbs, 12.6% - Bosniaks and the rest - Croats. Also in the republic live Jews, Czechs, Slovaks, Ukrainians. There are several official languages that belong to the three main peoples of the people, and two official alphabets - Cyrillic and Latin.
The population of the Republika Srpska in 2013 amounted to 1 million 320 thousand people. It is placed unevenly. Most of them live in the northern part and near the river Drina. In recent years, natural population growth is negative. This is due to the fact that women postpone the birth of children to a later date, and the average age of the mother at birth of the first child is 27 years. This may be due to the high level of unemployment, due to which there is no possibility to provide for a family.
The main religions on the territory of the republic are considered to be Orthodoxy, Muslims and Catholics are also found.
In general, the level of education is low: only about 100 thousand people have a higher education.