Special Operations Forces of the Russian Federation (MTR of the Armed Forces of Russia): History, Tasks, Armament
There is little information about the forces of special operations: these are young troops and they work under the heading of “secret”. The fighters in balaclava, their faces are not seen in the news stories or photos. These people silently and modestly carry out their task, but they speak about results all over the world.
History of special forces
Special forces were created in the 50s by a secret order subordinate to the General Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff.
The first Soviet special forces could eliminate commanders and influential political figures of the aggressor countries, destroy missile launchers, aircraft control points of aircraft or channels of communication with nuclear submarines. Carrying out the tasks, the special forces had to masterfully lead the enemy into a panic.
At the beginning of the 80s there were 11 special forces brigades in the country. They fought in Afghanistan, Chechnya - their numbers grew. Special Forces officers have ceased to be a "piece" product, fighters used more and more.
Forces of special operations in the Russian Federation: the formation
MTRs are troops created to defend and protect the interests of Russia and its citizens anywhere in the world. This is a special forces, which performs tasks in peacetime.
The history of the formation of the SSO of the Russian Armed Forces begins with the founding of special purpose military units, on the basis of which, on March 5, 1999, a Training Center appeared. Part is located in Solnechnogorsk. Subject to the group of the GRU. Then he was called the Special Purpose Center "Senezh". The fighters who underwent special training in the unit were called “sunflowers”.
The first battles of the new military unit took in Chechnya, during the second Chechen campaign.
Almost ten years later, during the reform of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, the special part was reorganized into the Special Operations Directorate, submission to the Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces.
In April 2011, with the assistance of the special forces of the FSB, the formation of another Special Center begins. The center is under the command of the GRU, located near Moscow.The unit was called the Kubinka-2 Special Purpose Center.
In March 2013, Russia announced that the country was preparing special operations forces. Senezh and Kubinka-2 are part of the new forces.
Three years later, the naval department of special operations SSO was included in the Navy in the Crimea.
The first commander of the Armed Forces SSO of Russia - Oleg Martyanov, 2009-2013. The command of special operations forces remains one of the most closed structures of the armed forces of the Russian Federation.
The day of "polite people"
The President signed the decree on the establishment of the Day of Special Operations Forces on February 26, 2015, the next day the soldiers met their first “day of polite people” - February 27.
A year before the decree was signed, on the night of February 27, the Russian fighters occupied all the objects of importance in ensuring the defense capability of the Crimea and parts of the Ukrainian Armed Forces. The locals nicknamed the people in camouflage as “polite” because those who performed special tasks in a tense time behaved very courteously and modestly with the Crimeans.
The emblem of special operations forces is a bow with a stele on a string directed upwards. On the plumage arrows - two straightened wing.
Outfit of MTR fighters
The equipment and weapons of special operations forces are unique. Equipment includes:
- headphones that drown out the sounds of battle and makes it possible to talk through the built-in radio station (removed);
- the latest Kalashnikov rifle with Pikatini slats, on which additional equipment can be mounted;
- collimator sight;
- silent shooting devices;
- splinterproof glasses;
- helmet - shockproof and splinterproof;
- mount for night vision device;
- bullet-proof vest - able to stop a bullet fired from a machine gun and a sniper rifle, with fastenings for magazines with cartridges, grenades and a first aid kit;
- optical sight;
- camouflage with integrated elbow pads and knee pads;
- lightweight and durable tactical boots.
The equipment also includes: tactical protection kit, splinter suit, hydrosuit, diving kit, unloading vest, thermal imager monoculator.
The most unclassified is medical equipment.
Each specialist has:
- Regular wearable medical kit.
- Portable stretcher for carrying the wounded from the battlefield.
- Means for stopping bleeding - bandages, tourniquet or turnstile, systems, saline, hemostatic.
- Funds from poisoning, antiseptics, analgesic, anti-shock, hemostatic.
The kit weighs about 10 kg.
How the Special Operations Forces Work
The occupation of the MTR fighters is to conduct reconnaissance and sabotage behind enemy lines, as well as maintaining order in their rear.
Work involves many hardships. Army service at the limit, tickling the nerves, requiring the exertion of all the forces and the willingness to sacrifice themselves for the sake of others.
The most important factor is the combat coordination of the team. Here we need absolute discipline, unconditional following the commander, and at the same time the ability to make independent decisions individually by each fighter.
Physical training is a necessary factor in the training of a specialist. Daily activities become a way of life. A warrior must have an absolute reaction in any situation, possess the most endurance and endurance.
Equally important is the ability to work with modern weapons. This requires a constant increase in the professionalism of each specialist.
Work in a team, two and three, as part of a group is based on perfect interaction, the ability to literally understand comrades without words. Trainings brought to automatism every movement.Each warrior must not only know his own maneuver, but also be able to act instinctively and anticipate the actions of the enemy.
The special operations forces of the Russian Federation are the military elite. The army group uses modern types of weapons and equipment, is well equipped and is ready at any time to perform a combat mission in any conditions, anywhere in the world. The task of the fighters is to protect the interests of Russia and its citizens. Their work every day is every minute readiness for the immediate application of their skills.
These are special operations troops, they use methods of combat that are not used by other troops. MTR fighters are scouts, saboteurs, demolition men, counter-saboteurs and partisans. They are paratroopers and divers, and they use small arms and small arms.
MTR in Syria
Exact airstrikes were made thanks to the professionalism of the fighters. Specialists work in the rear, using the entire arsenal of special means of reconnaissance and detection of the enemy. And snipers with rifles do no less than bombers.
Correction of air strikes, the elimination of terrorists and the destruction of important objects - such problems face the MTR.
Russian Armed Forces invited by Syrian authorities.It was decided that it would be better to stop the terrorists there than to wait for them in Russia. MTR units were in the thick of all confrontation. Skills acquired during training, are used in combat conditions, skills are honed and professionalism is improved.
The unique tasks of MTR
Modern intelligence, surveillance and communications require extensive knowledge of computer technology. Simulators using the latest electronics allow specialists in conditions as close as possible to the combat ones to hone their skills and increase their professionalism.
Performing combat missions in different regions requires knowledge of the host country’s language, culture, and folk customs.
Being in contact with the local population is an important factor in obtaining and selling the extracted information. Great attention is paid to agent-based operational and special tactical training. Professionals must perfectly know the basics of tactics and strategies of modern warfare.
They work under the heading "secret"
MTRs of the Russian Ministry of Defense use combat training systems. An important place is given to parachuting, fire training, mine-subversive and demining, tactics.
MTRs affect the economy and politics of other states with muscles and force, but secretly.Prepare foreign partisans, destroy important objects, eliminate interfering. MTR is in the USA, Germany, England, France, Israel. And nowhere do they sit without work.
In our country there were people who performed the most important tasks all over the world, and they continue to do their work today.
All Russian special forces troops are fighting in different ways in the Caucasus, participating in special operations to destroy bandits and extremists.
Today in the Russian Armed Forces there are 7 special forces brigades, as well as 4 squadron of combat swimmers.
MTR squad is worth a whole army
Only the best of the best are included in the SSO. Candidates are subject to rigorous selection. According to the results of severe tests, it turns out whether a person is able to withstand difficult situations and not to retreat before the most dangerous tasks.
Daily trainings are needed to be ready to perform any combat mission as clearly and efficiently, promptly and creatively as possible. Strength todayspecial operations of the Russian Federationcarry out direct work in the hottest points of the planet.
The country's military elite
The first special forces appeared in the GRU of the General Staff of the Russian Federation. Later, in other security agencies and special services, special units were created for various tasks.For example, the TsSN FSB "Alpha" is fighting terrorism in transport, "Vympel" - on particularly important sites.
There are special forces in the Ministry of Internal Affairs, in the internal troops. The famous "spotted berets" are opposed by gangs and are the power support of the police. The task of the special forces FS OBNON - the fight against drug trafficking. Spetsnaz FS of execution of punishments countering riots in the penitentiary system - in Russian prisons and zones.
In the West, all the forces of special operations are introduced into a single fist: both land, sea, and air. In Russia, everything is divided. For several decades the command has been trying to include air squadrons in the brigades, but so far to no avail.
But the leadership of the Russian Armed Forces is no longer ashamed of what it is doing in other countries. It declared its interests around the world and the goals to save and protect all Russian citizens: diplomats captured by extremists, sailors caught up by pirates, Russian citizens hostage.
At the foot of Elbrus, a stele to the Heroes of the Elbrus defense has been installed. Here a Russian soldier defeated a division of selected German climbers to war.
Russia is returning to the big story.It is alleged that wherever the Russian soldier came, there will be peace, tranquility and justice. In this case, it is not only the special operations forces of the Russian Federation.