Stridorous breathing - what is it?
Stridorous breathing, especially in babies, is very dangerous. Harmless loud sniffing can in a few minutes develop into a severe obstruction, which often leads to asthma attacks, laryngospasm and, in the absence of emergency care, to death.
Babies sleep so quietly that some parents feel as if they do not breathe at all. Quite justified anxiety cause loud breaths and exhalations. This condition of the doctor is called congenital stridor - this is a pathology in which there is a narrowing of the airways. In some cases, this is a serious danger to babies. Treatment of the disease, which is due to functional causes, is most often not needed, but if it has arisen as a consequence of another ailment, then instant medical care is required, especially for young children.
In adults, this is extremely rare and does not cause such serious complications, but still they also require medical intervention.
Depending on the causes of wheezing in adults and children, and the severity of the disease, the clinical manifestations may be completely different. Most often the disease is accompanied by gurgling in the trachea, obstruction and noisy breathing. Severe cases can be supplemented by characteristic symptoms:
- difficulty eating and drinking;
- blue skin;
- severe airway obstruction.
Stridor respiration is divided into three main types, according to which it can be characterized:
1.Inspiratory- during this period, there is barely audible noise during inhalation. The pathological process is going over the vocal folds.
2.Expiratorycharacterized by impure exhalations, there is a middle sound. The disease settles under the vocal folds.
3.Two phase- defeat occurs at the level of ligaments, there is noisy and sonorous dyspnea.
Stages of development in newborns
Stridoric breathing in children is quite a frequent occurrence, but still there are cases when immediate hospitalization is required, as this may cost them their lives:
1.It is determined easily, all the symptoms occur without a trace, after a few hours after manifestation.
2. If the signs of the disease have not disappeared independently, then the baby should be examined in the nearest specialized hospital. In the case of the presence of diseases of other organs besides the respiratory system, treatment is required.
3. It is easy to determine by the noisy and loud sound, drug therapy is needed.
4. This is the most difficult stage, if it does not provide medical assistance, then death is possible.
All of these stages can be observed in a patient if stridory respiration is diagnosed.
Newborns have very soft cartilage, at the time of the appearance of the pathology, they become so flexible and flexible that they can be compared with clay. At the moment of the next inhalation, the vibration occurs. This is due to the fact that negative pressure sets in in the bronchi. Such phenomena most often disappear on their own after the child gets older, his pharynx gradually expands, and the cartilage is made firmer.
In addition, there may be not only congenital causes, but also acquired ones that cause wheezing in an infant or adult:
- swallowing of a foreign body;
- tumors (squamous cell carcinoma and papillomatosis of the larynx, esophagus or trachea);
- sublobular stenosis (most often due to prolonged intubation);
- tracheobronchoma or tracheomalacia;
- infections (pharyngeal abscess, epiglottitis, croup);
- swelling of the respiratory tract (side effects of drugs, allergic reactions);
- rarely subglossal hemangioma;
- vascular rings compressing the trachea;
- paralysis of the vocal fold.
Most often, stridor breathing is characteristic of young children. In the case of a congenital defect, several specialists are required, namely, an otolaryngologist, a pediatrician, a pulmonologist and a cardiologist. Their main tasks are to identify the main cause of wheezing, the appointment of a course of treatment and the exclusion of other diseases.
At the time of examination, the doctor pays close attention to the frequency of inhalation and exhalation, heartbeat and skin color. They also reveal which muscles are involved in breathing as an auxiliary. The child must be assigned to the examination of the larynx - microlaryngoscopy, in which you can confirm the presence of the disease.
To establish the correct diagnosis are also conducted:
- Ultrasound (ultrasound) and x-ray of the larynx;
- MRI (magnetic resonance imaging);
- blood and urine tests;
- examination of the abdominal cavity by ultrasound and gastroscopy.
If the child has no voice, then a brain tomography and neurosonography are performed. When a congenital goiter becomes the cause of this, the endocrinologist diagnoses the baby, who prescribes a thyroid gland test and hormone tests.
If it is impossible to make an accurate diagnosis at the techniques, then often the child’s larynx is examined under anesthesia.
When stridor breathing is detected in newborns, parents first ask themselves how to treat such an ailment and whether it is worthwhile to interfere in this process. First of all, it all depends on the causes, which only a doctor can determine.
A congenital diagnosis, which appeared, for example, with a natural underdevelopment of the larynx, does not require medical intervention. There will be nothing left of the problem when the organs are fully formed. Most often, doctors recommend waiting a few months, and excellent health will return to the baby, and there will be no trace of the disease.
If striated breathing is due to neuralgia, regular medical attention is required. In this case, treatment should be directed to the restoration of the nervous system. After the problem is fixed, the whistling sounds will also disappear.
In the case when the disease arose due to the tumor process, benign growths are subjected to surgical removal.
A typical scheme in the treatment of a disease does not exist at all; each specific case has its own optimal conclusion, which is determined by the doctor through analysis and identification of the causes of the pathology. It is not recommended to treat the disease on its own without knowledge of what started it all, because it can harm the baby.
Manifestations in adults
Stridorosis respiration is most often caused by edema. The main reason is a cold. With it, symptoms such as cough, runny nose, fever and lacrimation can occur. And also one of the manifestations is considered expectoration of thick mucus and high temperature, which indicates the beginning of pneumonia. At the time of inflammation of the nasopharynx stridor is caused by swelling of the upper palate.Such complications are present in sinusitis, sinusitis and acute rhinitis. Adenoids are another important cause of wheezing. When the disease tissue grows strongly, and under the influence of edema, the tongue moves downward, which irritates the larynx during the period of swallowing.
Loud breaths and exhalations can be caused by sore throat, laryngitis and pharyngitis. The throat gets the maximum irritation from smokers with experience because of their addiction.
If an acute infection is detected, the main symptoms in adults are characterized by:
- pain when swallowing;
- difficulty breathing;
Initially, it is required to determine the location of the disease and the rate of increase of edema. If it appears very quickly, then the process can end with asphyxiation.
In addition to colds in future mothers, there is another reason for the development of stridor - it is an allergic reaction. Many women are familiar with this situation, when in the evening everything was fine, and in the morning the sore throat is incredibly sore, the breath is whistling strongly and saliva is swallowed with difficulty. Such symptoms occur if a girl has allergic stridor breathing.What is this phenomenon is already known, so it is clear that in this situation it is extremely dangerous for pregnant women. Most often, the edema is localized in the throat, and it is the most dangerous. A hoarse voice, a cough, shortness of breath, choking, swollen around the neck of the vein, and the skin becomes bluish enough quickly enough. At this point, future mothers feel a strong fear, which also negatively affects the child. Initially, in a vertical position and with deep breathing, women feel better, but this is only observed at the beginning. Further, the condition worsens significantly, loss of consciousness and severe convulsions are possible. Therefore, with the slightest symptoms, you must consult a doctor.
Complications and consequences
1. If a baby has such a disease, then tracheitis, laryngitis and pneumonia may develop.
2. When an ARVI joins the disease, decompensation occurs (disruption of adapted mechanisms) of the congenital stridor with the further development of respiratory failure.
3. In severe stages, there is also the possibility of the appearance of asphyxia (suffocation), aphonia (the absence of a loud voice in normal communication in a whisper).
4.There is a serious risk of death.
To date, prevention measures have not yet been developed. But doctors direct their strength to prevent the deterioration of the disease, for this are performed:
- planned trips to the doctor (every month up to six months, and after - once every few months);
- the presence of a diet (food should be filled with fiber, it includes a variety of fruits, vegetables and a large amount of greenery), it is recommended to abandon fried, canned, spicy and hot foods;
- eliminate hypothermia;
- the use of antiviral drugs during epidemics of various diseases that can cause the development of stridor.