Tamara Makarova: filmography and biography of the actress
2017 marks the 110th anniversary of the birth of a beautiful Soviet actress named Tamara Makarova. Her films were loved by more than one generation of viewers. In addition to the stunning career in the cinema, this amazing woman managed to prove herself as an excellent teacher, having educated more than one generation of talented artists. How did a simple girl from the family of a doctor manage to become the queen of Soviet cinema?
Tamara Makarova: Biography of Early Years
The future actress was born in 1907 in St. Petersburg. In addition to her, the family had two more children.
When the revolution broke out, the father of ten-year-old Toma, Fedorov Makarov, was forced to leave his family and hide, because he had previously worked as a physician in Tsarskoe Selo and was considered unreliable by the standards of that rebellious time. More children and his wife did not see him, and no one knows how his fate was.
After the disappearance of the father of the family, the care of the children fell entirely on the shoulders of Toma's frail mother, who had to work without weekends and holidays to provide for the family.
While the brave woman selflessly tried to make a living, young Toma took care of her younger brother and sister Luda. However, soon brother fell ill with tuberculosis and died.
Youth Tamara Makarova
The early years of the life of the actress came at a difficult time: after the Civil War there was devastation and famine in the country. But, perhaps, precisely because of the difficulties that she had to endure as a child, Tamara Feodorovna had such a sturdy and fearless character.
Makarov lived in a rather disadvantaged area. However, local hooligans respected young Tom for her frankness and desperate temper. She was a ringleader in her yard and was later able to organize an amateur theater there on her own. Over time, he received official status, and its participants - a regular grocery ration.
Study and first roles
After graduating from school at the age of seventeen, Tamara Makarova entered the acting workshop of Nikolai Fogger (Mastfor). Here she met her future husband, but at that time the beautiful student, who was besieged by crowds of fans, did not pay any attention to a nondescript young man wearing a foreign jacket.
The first role in the movie young actress Makarova Tamara received quite by accident. Being an inveterate fashionista, the girl always wanted to dress with chic, despite the difficult time. Good figure she was great. And the ability to maintain posture, which she acquired by doing ballet as a child, made it possible for a beginning actress to look like a queen even in the simplest outfit. Once, when she was walking down the street, dressed in the latest fashion of the time, she was noticed by an assistant from the FEKS (Factory of an eccentric actor). She invited the beauty to play in the movie "Alien jacket." And although the role of Dudkina, who was entrusted to the charming Tome, was quite tiny, Makarova played it superbly. However, because of this, the actress of a femme fatale stuck to the actress for several years, and she was assigned to play only foreign women or spies.
The first serious work in the movie, which went to Tamara Fedorovna Makarova, was the movie of Ivan Pyr'ev “The Conveyor of Death”, in which the actress played Anna. However, this tape was lying on the shelf for a long time and, having lost its relevance, was coolly received by the audience.Therefore, the picture did not bring the particular popularity of the actress, but helped prove to her that she was able to play not only frivolous young ladies, but also women with a rich inner world.
Union of Tamara Makarova and Sergey Gerasimov
The real breakthrough in the career of an actress was due to her husband - a famous Soviet film director and teacher Sergei Gerasimov.Acquaintance with him happened while studying, but at first she did not like the guy, especially at that time she already had a gentleman. However, Gerasimova beauty Tamara Makarova made a stunning impression, and he made every effort to conquer her proud heart.
There is a legend that on one of the dates the actress persuaded her acquaintances hooligans to test her suitor for courage. Sergey Apollinarievich adequately passed the test, and in 1928 the lovers got married.
This union had a huge impact on the Soviet cinema, because, according to Gerasimov himself, it was the spouse who supported his desire to retrain from artist to director. In turn, the husband of Tamara Makarova insisted that she develop her talent and enter the Technical School of Performing Arts.
In the first years of marriage, the spouses practically did not make films together, each focused on his career. But they were able to achieve real success only when they began to work together.
The debut collaboration for lovers was dumb film "Do you love you?" In it, Gerasimov first took off his wife in the title role. However, this tape did not become a special event in the world of Soviet cinema and was not even preserved in the archives. But the next joint work of the spouses glorified them throughout the USSR.
The painting "Seven brave" - the first sound film Gerasimov and Makarova
In 1935, Sergei Gerasimov and Yuri Herman wrote a script about the life of the seven inhabitants of the Joyous Arctic bay. Soon, in this scenario, the film “Seven brave” was shot. The main female role, Dr. Eugenia Okhrimenko, was received by actress Makarova Tamara.
This film has become a real hit. The audience was delighted with her, and Zhenya Okhrimenko, like the performer of this role, became a heroine and an example for millions of Soviet viewers. Photos of Tamara Makarova began to be printed as postcards with millions of copies.Moreover, at the commemorative World Paris Exhibition in 1937, not only the famous sculpture of Vera Mukhina was awarded, but also the Seven Brave Movies.
A year later, Gerasimov shot another film with his wife in the lead role - Komsomolsk. Like his previous work, this one was also devoted to the weekdays and holidays of working youth. Despite the agitation of pathos, in a huge amount present in the picture, the director managed to make it incredibly realistic, having carefully worked out the character and motivation of each character. However, the lion’s share of Komsomolsk’s success was due to Tamara Makarova, who played Natasha Solovyov. Despite the very warm welcome, this tape was slightly inferior to the “Seven Brave”.
In the same year, the actress starred in another director, in the film "The Great Glow". However, before the work of Sergei Gerasimov, this tape was far away.
Film "The Teacher" and the first Stalin Prize
After two successful projects, Gerasimov and Makarova became a brand. Now there was no need to invite viewers to movie theaters for films with Tamara Makarova’s participation - her name alone was the best advertisement.
The next joint work of the spouses was the picture "Teacher". In it, the actress played the Ural peasant Agrafena Shumilina, in love with a young teacher who had arrived in their village. This role was so well successful for Tamara Fedorovna Makarova that she, along with her husband, was awarded the Stalin Prize.
The last joint work of the spouses in the pre-war movie was the painting “Masquerade” after the drama by Mikhail Lermontov. Despite the fact that she was not awarded prizes, this film was a turning point in the fate of the actress.
Earlier, the filmography of Tamara Makarova consisted of films on the events of our time. Therefore, no one except Gerasimov, did not believe that the actress is capable of plausibly playing an aristocratic XIX century. Moreover, Tamara Fyodorovna had previously beautifully created images of collective farmers and Komsomol on the screen.However, in the "Maskarada" before the audience appeared completely different Makarova - few could find out in this true lady with impeccable bearing and secular manners Komsomol Solovyov or peasant Shumilina.
Familiar stellar couple say that the miraculous transformation of Tamara Makarova was due to the influence of her husband.By the way, after the “Masquerade” throughout her life, the actress maintained the image of the lady who was formed at her work on this project.
At the beginning of World War II, Makarova and Gerasimov were offered to leave for evacuation, but the couple refused and remained in Leningrad until 1943, having survived the most difficult times in the blocked city. In addition to working at Lenfilm, in these years, Tamara Makarova worked in the hospital and sand-box, for which she was subsequently awarded three medals and the Order of the Patriotic War.
In this difficult time, the actress starred in the film Gerasimova about the war "Invincible". This tape was the last collaboration of Makarova with Lenfilm. After its completion, the spouses were evacuated from Tashkent, but never returned to Leningrad, after which they moved to Moscow.
In the capital in 1944, Gerasimov published a new war tape - “The Great Land”. As in the previous works of the director, the main role in it was played by his spouse.
It is worth noting that the films with Tamara Makarova, made in the war years, were so realistic also due to the fact that the actress, on the advice of her husband, refused to make up during the filming. Wrinkles not disguised under layers of make-up added to her heroines of naturalness and believability.
Even during her stay in the evacuation she found out about the sad fate of her younger sister Lyudmila Tamara Makarova. The personal life of a poor woman was not very successful. Lyudmila Fedorovna’s husband was a German by birth, and with the start of World War II he was arrested for treason against his motherland. His wife, as a relative of the enemy of the people, was sent to Siberia for settlement.
Their son Arthur faced an unenviable future in the orphanage for the offspring of the enemies of the people. To protect his nephew, Makarov and Gerasimov used all ties and formalized custody, adopting and raising the boy as their son.
Subsequently, Arthur became a famous writer and screenwriter. Among his works are screenplays for motion pictures “New Adventures of the Elusive”, “The Golden Mine” and “Three Days Outside the Law”.
With the move to the capital of the USSR, the first lady of the Soviet cinema tried herself in a new role - a teacher. Together with her husband, she began to teach young artists VGIK.
Since the actress did not have her children (which she later regretted very much), the woman gave all her unspent maternal love to her students.Tamara Makarova not only became an excellent teacher for them, but also financially supported many of them during the difficult post-war time.
Everyone at VGIK knew that the lucky ones who got into the workshop of Makarova and Gerasimov would always be provided with work. After all, even after graduation, star spouses cared about the career of their favorite students.
The most famous VGIKov's “children” of Tamara Makarova and Sergey Gerasimov are Sergey Bondarchuk, Lyudmila Gurchenko, Zinaida Kiriyenko, Natalia Fateeva, Galina Polskikh, Lydia Fedoseeva-Shukshina, Natalya Belokhvostikova, Nikolai Eremenko Jr. and many others. All of them with sincere warmth and gratitude remember their teacher, who was for them not only a strict teacher, able to speak the whole truth in person, but also an example to follow.
Other films with Tamara Makarova
With the end of the war, the “film romans” of Gerasimov and his wife began to fade. The fact is that Makarova was getting older and was no longer suitable for the role of young heroines, about whom her husband was painting pictures.And although she played well in Alexander Ptushko’s The Stone Flower,and for the “Oath” of Mikhail Chiaureli, she was again awarded the Stalin Prize, in the cult film by Gerasimov “Young Guard” the actress received only the minor role of the mother of Oleg Koshevoy.
Despite the fact that the spouse began to take on the main roles of other, younger actresses, Tamara Fedorovna did not despair. In the film “Three Meetings” she perfectly played the Olympiad Samoseyev, thanks to which her husband invited her to play the main role in the new film “The Village Doctor”. After this work, for almost a decade Makarov and Gerasimov did not work together on the set.
In these years, the actress almost does not appear on the silver screen, concentrating on teaching. Meanwhile, her husband is shooting The Quiet Don, with Elina Bystritskaya in the lead role. The saddest thing is that the idea to film the fundamental novel of Mikhail Sholokhov arose in Gerasimov in the late thirties. At that time he planned to invite his wife to the role of the fatal Cossack Aksinya. However, the war prevented the implementation of this plan at that time, and in the sixties Makarova, despite her excellent form, was no longer suitable for the role of the beloved Gregory Melekhov.
In 1962Sergei Gerasimov makes a rather controversial at that time film "People and Beasts." His wife not only played in this project, but also became the author of the libretto for him.
After this picture, with the exception of the film “At the Lake” with Vasily Shukshin and Natalia Belokhvostikova, as well as “Red and Black” with Sergey Eremenko Jr., Tamara Makarova was shot in all the other films of Sergey Gerasimov.
The last joint work of Gerasimov and Makarova was the tape of 1984 - “Leo Tolstoy”, in which they played the spouses Lev Nikolayevich and Sofia Andreyevna. Shortly thereafter, Sergei Gerasimov was hospitalized and died from heart problems.
Life of Tamara Makarova after the death of her husband
Having remained a widow, Tamara Fedorovna taught for some time at VGIK, but then she retired. The reason turned out to be banal: an elderly woman, who at that time was almost eighty years old, was physically hard to get to work herself, and it wasn’t advisable for VGIK to provide her with an official car with a chauffeur, as was the case with Sergey Gerasimov.
Despite this, former students did not leave a favorite teacher.They often came to visit and tried to support a lonely woman.
As for the work in the movie, then, despite her advanced age, the actress was often invited to act, but she refused, believing that the death of her husband and her film career ended.
The murder of her 64-year-old nephew Artur Makarov was a serious shock that Tamara Fyodorovna experienced in the last years of her life. The perpetrator of this crime was never found.
Two years later, in 1997, Tamara Makarova herself was gone. A great actress was buried next to her husband, at the Novodevichy cemetery.
For the modern generation of spectators born in the eighties - nineties of the twentieth century, the work of Tamara Makarova is not very familiar. For them, she is one of many stars of the Stalin era, such as Marina Ladynina, Lyubov Orlova, or Valentina Serova. Despite this, even today there are people who remember this excellent actress and teacher. I want to believe that fans of Tamara Fedorovna's talent will always be, even after a few hundred years.