Types of Personality in Sociology
Forming a person is a long andcomplicated. The society makes certain (and rather tough) demands on individuals. Through the system of education and upbringing, it seeks to form a personality type that best meets the requirements that it presents. In connection with this, separate types of personality are singled out in sociology.
Due to different objective and subjectivecharacteristics in society are formed by various types of personalities. This is influenced by various aspects of quantitative nature (social activity of people) and qualitative (the direction of activity can be conscious or spontaneous, creative or destructive). These characteristics are determined by the social structure of society, its normative culture and value orientations, as well as self-consciousness, attitudes and style of thinking of individuals.
Personality from the point of view of sociology is the core,linking the mental processes of man and giving his behavior a certain stability and logical sequence. By the sign that mainly affects this nucleus, personality types in sociology are determined by different theories: the psychobiological (W. Sheldon), the biosocial (F. Allport, K. Rogers), the psychosocial (K. Horney, K. Adler), the psychostatic (" factorial "- D. Eysenck, R. Kettel, etc.).
Social types of personality in sociology are defined as a product of a complex intertwining of socio-economic and historical-cultural conditions of people's lives.
In sociological science, varioustypology of personality. M. Weber for the criterion of typology took the features of social action, that is, the degree of its rationality. K. Marx as the main sign considers class and formational affiliation. E. From defines types of personality depending on the social (as opposed to individual) character. According to Fromm types of personality are allocated receptive (passive), exploitative, accumulative and market nature.
Types of personality in sociology are models of personality,which sociology (and also psychology) are used as patterns for grouping in the classification, study and ordering of sets of personalities. Different theories identify ideal concrete-historical and empirical types of personality.
In Western theory, the typology onthe basis of personal indicators. So K.Yung distinguishes types on the basis of sensitivity, thinking, experience of evaluation, intuition, extraverted or introvertive orientation. According to H. Aizeku, the main characteristics of individuals are such concepts as extraversion and introversion. Extroverts tend to direct the energy of the psyche to the outside, and introverts are inward.
Personality types in sociology at the present stage are also singled out as follows: traditionalists, idealists, a frustrated type, realists, hedonists.
Traditionalists aim at values such asorder, duty, law-abiding, discipline. At the same time, there is almost no self-actualization and desire for self-realization. The idealists deny the traditional norms, are independent, skeptical of authority and are oriented toward self-development. Frustrated type is characterized by low self-esteem, suppressed self-feeling and a sense of ejection from life. Realists aspire to self-realization, have a sense of responsibility and duty, self-discipline and self-control. Hedonists tend to get pleasure, mainly in the form of satisfying simple consumer desires.
The role theory of personality in sociology waswas created by representatives of the structural and functional direction of D. Moreno, T. Parsons and others. They viewed the personality through the prism of social roles in society. In society, the division of labor is objective, and therefore various social statuses and roles of people appear, which are in a functional connection.