Water levels in the river, general concepts. Water levels in Altai rivers
The water level in the reservoir is the height of the water surface relative to the conventional horizontal plane (that is, the height above sea level).
The following water levels are distinguished in a river:
- The flood is the highest of them. It is formed after the melting of snow and glaciers.
- Flood - a high water level, formed after heavy long torrential rains. At the flood there is a peak - a wave, which moves along the river with the speed of the river flow. Before the flood peak, the water in the river arrives, and after the peak decreases.
- Low water - the lowest level, natural and established for the reservoir.
Altai rivers mainly belong to the Ob river system. This river crosses the Altai Territory in its upstream. The Ob and its tributaries - the Alei, Barnaulka, Chumysh, Bolshaya Rechka and others - have wide well-developed valleys and a calm current. The water level in the rivers of the region is defined as winter low water and summer flood. They have mainly mixed food: glacial, snow, rain and soil.
Water level in Altai rivers
The river network of the mountainous Altai is well developed (with the exception of the south-eastern part). Rivers originate from glaciers, swamps and lakes. For example, on flat ridges from the swamp, the Bashkaus tributary of the Chulyshman River originates, the Biya River flows out of Lake Teletskoye, and the source of the Katun River is located near the Belukha glacier.
The rivers of the Kulunda lowland are predominantly rain and snow fed with a pronounced spring flood. In summer, very little rain falls on the territory of the region, and the water level in the rivers falls dramatically, many of them become shallow, and in some areas even dry up. In winter, they freeze, and from November to April, the freeze-up lasts.
Mountain rivers belong to the Altai mixed type of food. They are abundant, they are powered by thawing of glaciers, precipitation and by groundwater.
Melting snow in the mountainous area lasts from April to June. The snow comes off gradually, starting from the north of the Altai Mountains, then in the low mountains, after which it begins to descend into the middle mountains and in the southern highlands. Glaciers begin to melt in July. In summer, rainy days alternate with clear and sunny.But prolonged rainfall here is a rather frequent phenomenon, due to which the water level in the rivers rises sharply and quite strongly.
For rivers of highlands, glacial and snow type of feeding is typical. The summer flood is pronounced, although it happens in the fall.
For the rivers of middle mountains and low mountains in the mode, two high levels are characteristic:
- In spring and summer - flood (from May to June).
- In summer and autumn - floods due to autumn rains and melting glaciers.
In autumn and winter, the rivers are characterized by low flow - the lowest water level in the rivers.
In the mountains, they are covered with ice much later than in the plains, but they usually freeze to the bottom. In some mountain rivers, ice formation occurs on the surface and along the bottom at the same time. Ice weather usually lasts about 6 months.
Belukha Mountain is the most important source of food for the rivers of the Altai Territory. The Belukha glaciers are very active, they descend very low, melt heavily and receive a lot of precipitation.
From this process of melting the river receive about 400 million cubic meters. m. of water per year.
Water levels in the Ob River
Ob—a typical flat river, but its sources and major tributaries are in the mountains. Ob is characterized by two floods - in spring and summer.Spring occurs due to the waters from melting snow, summer - due to the waters from melting glaciers. Low water occurs in winter.
The river freezes for a long time. Ice flooding on the Ob River lasts from November, and only in April the ice begins when the river is free from the ice column.
Katun is a typical mountain river, its source is in the glaciers of the Belukha Mountain. The nutrition of this water artery is mixed: from the melting of glaciers and from precipitation. Water levels in the Katun River look like a flood in summer and low water in winter. The flood period begins in May and lasts through September. In winter, the river freezes to the bottom.
Biya flows out of Lake Teletskoye. It is full of water throughout. Biya is a river both mountainous and flat.
The water levels in the Biya River look like flood in spring, and in the fall and winter - low water. The flood is established in spring (starting from April), but in summer its water level is also quite high, although at this time a gradual decline of water begins. In November, low water is established on the river and ice cover begins, which continues until April. In April, the drift begins.