What are the prostheses for the legs: photo and description
Amputation of a limb radically changes a person’s life. Everyday affairs become a real problem, and familiar situations cause a lot of questions. People with amputated lower limbs know firsthand what it is impossible to cope with the simplest things without the help of outsiders. However, modern medicine can solve the most acute problems. Today, limb prosthetics are practiced in many countries. Every year in this area there are innovative discoveries, new developments appear that allow people who have undergone the most complicated operation to return to normal life. In this publication you will find all the most necessary information about prostheses for the legs (photos, types, descriptions, features of construction).
What is prosthetics?
Prosthetics is a type of special medical care, involving the partial or complete restoration of the functions and forms of an amputated or damaged organ (limb). This is the most important stage of social and labor rehabilitation of the individual.
Today, there is a lot of progress in this area of medicine. Firstly, the procedure of prosthetics becomes more accessible (specialized clinics appear in many countries, more qualified doctors are becoming). Secondly, new methods are being introduced and rehabilitation ways are being modernized.
Modern development of prosthetics
Today developed bionic prostheses for legs and arms. They are most similar to the natural limbs of man. As a rule, bionic prostheses are equipped with special microprocessors that provide a comfortable performance of a number of movements.
At this stage, scientists are working to create a “feedback” through which a person can fully experience tactile feelings.
Making prosthetic legs
Lower limb prostheses are selected and manufactured taking into account the individual characteristics of each patient. When building them, only modular components are used. This makes it possible, if necessary, to replace one of the components of the prosthesis. Consider the steps of the prosthesis process in more detail.
1. The manufacture of the receiving cavity of the sleeve, which will be attached artificial leg. To do this, a specialist makes a plaster copy of the stump.Then the details of the prosthesis are projected, after which their manufacture begins. As a rule, the receiving cavity of the sleeve is made of thermoplastic. When heated, this material becomes plastic, which makes it possible to change the shape of the part if necessary.
2. Assembling the prosthesis. At this stage, all the details of the artificial limb join.
3. Imitation of natural legs. At this stage, a porous coating is applied and a cosmetic effect is created. Most often, the shell is made of resistant hypoallegic silicone.
Types of prosthetic feet
Depending on the functionality, there are working, passive, active prostheses for the legs.
- The first only externally create the effect of natural limbs. They represent an anatomical model. As a rule, such prostheses are temporary. They are used to adapt a person to new living conditions.
- Passive prostheses are exclusively support. They are designed to train a person to move without help. In addition, such prostheses do not have a special coating. They are a skeleton.After attachment to the cult, such devices are masked with clothes.
- Active prosthetic legs help a person perform a variety of movements. Such devices are equipped with special microprocessors. Signals from healthy muscles are recorded by sensors. After that, the impulse is transmitted to the electric motor, which puts the foot in action.
Depending on the features of the amputation, prostheses of the toes, shin, thigh and the whole lower limb are distinguished.
A prosthesis for a leg above the knee is necessary for those people who have undergone a hip amputation procedure. There are two types of such devices: modular and frame. The second option is practically not used today (in exceptional cases it can be prescribed for elderly people). The modular view is widespread today. In the manufacture of artificial legs on this principle takes into account all the anatomical features. It is important to note that a healthy femur is surrounded by a large number of muscles. When building a prosthesis, this feature is necessarily taken into account. Before connecting the artificial limb stump loosely covered with soft tissues.
Components of the hip prosthesis.
- Sleeve. This item is connected stump.
- Sleeve adapter designed to connect modular elements and prosthetic liner.
- Knee module. This detail is usually equipped with microprocessors.
- Carrier module
A prosthetic leg below the knee is assigned to those patients who have undergone the procedure for amputation of the lower leg. There are several types of such artificial limbs: frame (practically not used), modular and tire-leather. The last option is assigned to people who have a stump defect. The most commonly used modular prostheses that allow you to perform the device with all the anatomical features of the patient.
Shoulder prosthesis components:
- Sleeve. This part can be attached to the stump through belts, silicone case, vacuum or a special locking device.
- Pedilinovy insert. For men, its thickness is about 5-6 mm, for women - 4 mm. This element is modeled according to how the person will wear the prosthesis.
- Adjusting and connecting details.
This type of prosthesis is necessary for full restoration of the musculoskeletal functions of the leg.A healthy foot is able to hold the entire body mass of a person and ensure its movement. That is why, after the transferred operation of amputation of at least one toe, doctors recommend installing prostheses. It is very important for the normal functioning of the lower limbs. With partial amputation, the prosthesis is attached to the stump by means of a vacuum, which is formed naturally. The restoration of all the fingers takes into account their length and location relative to each other. Nails are made separately from soft acrylic. Then they are placed in an already prepared bed. It is important that the nail is located 0.5 mm deeper than the surrounding material.
The cosmetic cover of the prosthesis is made of hypoallergenic silicone. This is a fairly durable material that is not affected by moisture and high temperatures.