What does the term "annexation" mean? Annexation of Czechoslovakia. Annexation is ....
The term "annexation" implies a varietyaggression of one country in relation to another, in the course of which their territories can unite. At the same time, it is necessary to distinguish the concept under consideration from another common term - occupation, implying the abolition of the legal ownership of the captured territory.
Examples of annexation
A striking example is the events in Bosnia andHerzegovina, where the annexation took place, is the occupation by Austria of the land in the 19th century, which could only mean one thing: weakening the influence of the Austrian supremacy and the subsequent return of certain legal freedoms (for example, the return of the right to wear the former name). Another example is the annexation of the United States of Hawaii. We should not forget about such an event as the annexation of Czechoslovakia by Germany or the annexation of Crimea by Russia. This concept was the result of the implementation of the aggressive nature of a stronger country in relation to the state, which was much weaker.
The history of annexation in Russia
Thus, annexation is, in accordance withinternational law, unlawful enforced accession and the seizure by one country of the territory of another. In Russia, this concept was first encountered in the 19th century and it signified the joining of the province or region to another state. At the same time, there is not at least a formally declared act of refusal of the former owner of this territory (state). Synonyms for this term were "annexation" and "annexation."
The annexation is a gross violation of rights?
Annexation is a gross violationinternational rights. The invalidity of such territorial seizures that result from the emergence of annexation is indicated by certain international agreements and acts. For example, it is the verdict of the Nuremberg Military Tribunal (1946), as well as the UN Declaration on the Inadmissibility of Intervention in the Internal Affairs of Countries, the Declaration, which defines the principles of international law and concerns areas of cooperation and friendly relations between states (1970). The act of the Conference on Cooperation and Security in Europe (Final Act) also speaks about the inadmissibility of annexation.
Contribution is a concomitant concept
Annexation and indemnity - often these two concepts closely interact with each other. Thus, the second term presupposes the imposition of certain payments on the defeated country.
In 1918, after the First World War,proposed "a world without annexations and indemnities." However, as for Russia, this state was imposed unfavorable conditions of peace, subject to settlement only by 1922. Thus, such a world, based on historical reality, can not be. Based on the definition of the word, annexation is a kind of continuation of aggressive actions, although not the same as during the war years.
The concept of occupation
The annexation must be distinguished from occupation. Thus, annexation refers to the implementation of certain actions that do not entail changes in the part of the legal territory of the territory. As mentioned above, Bosnia and Herzegovina, which was in occupation with Austria-Hungary and annexed by it only in 1908, can serve as an example. Until this period, this state formally belonged to the Ottoman Empire.
IN AND. Lenin on annexation
Lenin was also given a definition of this concept. In his opinion, annexation is a forced annexation, alien pressure, expressed in the annexation of another's territory.
Negative consequences of indemnity
We have already used such a notion asan indemnity denoting compulsory collection of payments or property exemptions from the defeated state after the end of hostilities. At the heart of the contribution is a concept such as "the right of the winner". This principle is used regardless of the existence of fairness in the conduct of war by the victorious state. The amount, form and terms of payment of indemnity are determined by the winner. This concept arose as a means by which the population of a defeated state or city was originally bought back from possible looting.
History gives vivid examples of useindemnities. Thus, in order to ensure the restrictions of unrestrained robbery of the population, in the framework of the articles of the Hague Convention in 1907, the amount of levying was limited. However, during the two world wars these articles were roughly violated. The Geneva Convention, which marked the protection of civilians in 1949, did not provide for collection. The Entente states in the process of creating the Treaty of Versailles, signed in 1919, were also forced to abandon this type of income, but replaced it with reparations. In 1947, peace treaties provide for the principles of preventing the use of indemnities. To replace it, as already mentioned above, reparations, substitutions, restitutions and other kinds of material responsibilities of the countries come.
The annexation of Czechoslovakia by Germany
Turning to the events of World War II,it is necessary to note the succession of Hitler in achieving his goals. Therefore, if Western politicians took his statements seriously, then timely measures could stop Hitler much earlier. But facts are undeniable things. So, after the annexation of Sudeten by Hitler, a decision was made to occupy the entire Czechoslovakia. This step allowed German policy, in addition to economic benefits, to gain a geopolitical advantage in the eastern part of Europe, which contributed to the successful conduct of military operations in Poland and the Balkans.
In order for the capture of Czechoslovakia to bebloodless, it was necessary to upset the Czechoslovak statehood. Hitler repeatedly made statements about the need to prevent a European war. However, after the events in Munich, the German politician began to understand that the subsequent such crisis could end only in the war. At the same time, any "flirting" with London also lost its meaning.
Among recent diplomacy attempts,1938 agreement with France, which guaranteed the inviolability of the relevant borders. This was a kind of complement to the Munich Anglo-German declaration, designed to provide a short peace of Germany on the western flank. And from the position of Paris, these agreements marked the initial stage of a completely new stage in European diplomacy.
However, Hitler was completely occupied with Czechoslovakia. It was Germany that provoked separatism. The government in Prague made last attempts to save the remnants of statehood. So, they were dissolved Slovak and Ruthenian (Transcarpathia) government, and also introduced martial law in the territory of Slovakia. Such a situation in the given territory was completely satisfied with Hitler. Thus, in 1939, Slovak Catholic leaders (Josef Tiso and Ferdinand Durkansky) were invited to Berlin, where the documents were prepared, which proclaimed the independence of Slovakia. At the same time, the Reich was called upon to take the new state under his protection. Thus, the annexation of Czechoslovakia by Germany was carried out.