What is spelling and what are its principles
What is spelling? This is a question that concerns not only schoolchildren before exams and students of philological specialties. It occupies the minds of many scientists, because it is a whole branch of linguistics.
What is spelling and what are the origins of the word
For the first time, any civilized inhabitant of the planet faces the concept and rules of spelling already in elementary school. We are taught spelling, and this is spelling. The very name of science came to us from a distant ancient era. Its meaning is interpreted as “correct” - orthos and “writing, setting out” - grapho.
The modern world and the lack of spelling are incompatible. Without spelling there is no English, French, Chinese, Russian and other languages. The existence and functioning of any written language implies the existence of a specific set of rules governing the peculiarities of writing sentences and words.
The spelling rules, including the spelling of the Russian language, have their own history.
Spelling passed the test of time, changing and adapting to the realities of life in the process of its historical development. In some languages, even today there are new words and letters. For example, in the Ukrainian language in the 1990s, the letters "ґ" appeared. In historical perspective, this is a bold move.
Where did the spelling of the Russian language
The history of spelling formation in Russia is very interesting. Modern scholars are convinced that at first there was a verb, and then Cyrillic came to replace it. The question of spelling was practically not familiar to schoolchildren of that time. The parents of writing were Cyril and Methodius, who carried out the orders of the emperor of Byzantium, Michael III. In the classical version, the Old Slavonic writing consisted of 43 letters. The first spelling reform began in the 17th century. because of the need to correct books.
Thus, minor changes were made to the set of rules, which existed before the reforms of Peter I of 1708-1711. It is worth noting that until that time the Church Slavonic alphabet was not changed.
The years 1917-1918 brought to Russia the Russian alphabet, consisting of 33 letters, which we all use at the moment. 1956 brought the regulation and the set of rules of Russian punctuation and spelling.From now on, scientists begin to wonder what spelling is and define it as a field of general linguistics.
Principles of spelling
The purpose and objectives of spelling are in the correct transmission of words when writing, but in all countries it is based on general principles - phonetic, morphological and semantic. Let us consider in more detail the meaning of each of them:
- Morphological principle. It consists in writing morphemes, and it does not depend on the phonetic pronunciation. Russian spelling is built precisely on this principle. That is, each letter is recited when reading, and diphthongs are not used.
- The phonetic principle is based on the primacy of the rules of pronunciation. In this case, the words are written the same way as they are pronounced. It is no secret that every person hears words differently, and it would be wrong to base the principles of spelling, relying only on phonetics. This would lead to chaos and discord in the perception of what was written.
- The historical principle. This is a standard traditional principle, which is followed by more than one generation of people. It lies in the theory of the formation of linguistic means under the influence of historical events.
There is another principle - differentiating, but it is not always taken into account.
How to check text for spelling errors
Today, it is possible to check whether the text is written correctly using special programs.
Many of them have built-in language recognition and playback plug-ins for the convenience of users. On the Internet, you can quickly check the text for spelling errors on specialized websites in the online mode. We learn the basics of spelling in adolescence, while studying at school. In the future, the understanding of what spelling and spelling rules of words is fixed on a subconscious level. This is called literacy.