What was the industrial society at the beginning of the 20th century? Brief description, distinctive features
At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, the world began to develop in a new direction. The changes were due to the final transition of countries to a new stage - industrialization. At this stage, three echelons of states emerged that clearly marked their transition to the new era. Consider furtherhistory of industrial society in the early 20th century.
The developed countries
They constituted a kind of coreindustrial society in the early 20th century. USA, Germany, England, France entered a new historical stage after the end of the industrial revolution. Their further development was based on the achievements of the scientific and technical revolution.
A steady type of industrial and economic development was formed on this system echelon. At the same time, new classes were formed:
- Industrial and financial and petty bourgeoisie.
- Engineering and technical elite.
ATindustrial society in the early 20th centurypolitical institutions began to be created. There were changes in the state system, the rights and freedoms of citizens were significantly expanded, guarantees were provided for entrepreneurs and private owners.
In the early 20th century in an industrial societydeveloped countries showed signs of industrial monopoly capitalism. It is associated with the emergence of large monopolies, associations, financial and industrial corporations in significant transport and industrial sectors.
The influence of the oligarchy
The financial and industrial bourgeoisie had a significant impact on the establishmentindustrial society. Early 20century oligarchy influenced:
- State activity. The impact occurred through elected institutions and the parliament, as a result of which a closed lobbying system was formed.
- State structures and deputies of parliament by blackmail and payoffs. This allowed the bourgeoisie to solve their own problems and get super-profits.
- Foreign and domestic policies, mutually beneficial financial and business class and state bureaucracy.
States of catching up development
Among them were Russia, Spain, Japan, Austria-Hungary. They were just beginning to appearfeatures of an industrial society. At the beginning of the 20th centuryThese countries:
- Conducted modernization of production.
- Entered a new phase of development. At the same time, the remnants of the former semi-feudal structure remained in society, while the role of the state remained decisive.
- Preserved patriarchal ideas. The population was still divided into aristocracy, serfs, clergy. At the same time, new classes began to form: the scientific and technical intelligentsia, the proletariat, the bourgeoisie.
- The industrial industry was kept under state control, and the military-industrial potential was increased.
In these countries, speaking, was formed by the imposition of epochs with the old (pre-industrial) and new (industrial) economies. In such a situation, the development of second-tier states was significantly complicated; often there were economic crises and revolutionary explosions.
Redistribution of spheres of influence
a general cyclical crisis arose.It was caused by a shortage of raw materials, a shortage of markets for goods, and a glut in the domestic market. There was an imbalance in the development of the world economy. He entailed a struggle for the redistribution of spheres of influence between empires and superpowers.
The struggle began in Central Europe, the Far East and the southern regions. So in Indochina there was a redistribution of colonies and semi-colonies belonging to the third echelon of countries.
Russia began deep modernization from the middle of the 19th century. It was assumed that the development of the country will ensure the preservation of the status of an independent great state.
It took place at a rapid pace. For a relatively short period from 1900 to 1913, coal production and pig iron production almost doubled, while oil production increased 2.5 times. Most of the volume accounted for by European countries and America.
Along with the acceleration of development, the structure of the industry changed. The share of engineering, metallurgy; new industries began to emerge (chemical, electrical industry, automobile and machine tool industry).
In addition, the geography of the industry has significantly expanded.A large number of chemical and electrical plants were established in Germany. The industry of this country in 1913 supplied to the markets 86% of products. In Sweden, there was an expansion of paper and sawmills, began to produce high-quality steel. In the Netherlands appeared concern Philips. He produced radio engineering and quickly won the world market. In a relatively short time, car production in Italy has expanded. The leader in the automotive industry has become a concern "Fiat".
At the turn of 19-20 centuries. A huge number of people began to move to other countries in search of work. Thousands of villagers moved to the cities. There they were employed in industrial and service enterprises.
In 1900-1913 more than 17 million people emigrated from European countries. Most of them went to the New World. In this case, the center of gravity was the United States. To America for 1900-1915 came more than 14 million people. Many moved to Australia, Canada, and also the countries of Latin America (Argentina, Brazil, etc.).
Due to the influx of a huge number of people, the markets for cheap labor have expanded.This allowed entrepreneurs to maintain low wages for hired workers. As a result, a significant gap arose between the living standards of the working population and the representatives of the middle class.
The gap between the poor and the rich existed in a society where equality and freedom were proclaimed as the basis. All this caused a feeling of anger in people and prompted them to fight for their rights. At the same time, many in society, including those at the top, understood that the further preservation of such a situation was impossible. During this period in the UK, books were published with very expressive titles: "Poverty. A study of urban life", "Wealth and poverty."