Wolves: types of wolves, description, lifestyle, photo
Who are the wolves? These are forest dwellers and negative fairy tale characters. These representatives of the animal world are usually afraid and do not like. Did you know that there are different types of wolves, and they live not only in the forests. We will tell about it in our article.
We have such
The largest species of wolf is found on the territory of Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia. It is called Central Russian Forest. How many large species of wolves weigh? The weight of this, for example, reaches 55 kilograms. The wool of the Central Russian Forest Wolf is gray, but with shades. On the back is long, strong dark hair. It feeds, like other species of wolves, whose names you will find in this article, game. But several more species of these predators live in our country. The tundra wolf lives in the tundra, forest tundra. It occurs to the Arctic coast and Kamchatka. Their weight reaches 50 kilograms. The coat is gray, but its shade is lighter than that of the Central Russian wolf. It is long, thick and soft.Towards the north there are tundra wolves of white color. The tundra wolf eats white hares, ungulates and rodents. His strong teeth are designed to crush bones and grind food. Any species of wolves live in the place where they can obtain food in sufficient quantities. Tundra is no exception. But he needs to eat about 14 kilograms of meat at a time to quench his wolfish appetite. He prefers to mate with the same female. Northern species of wolves are usually larger than the southern ones. It is not known what is the reason. Not only in Russia do wolves live. Species of wolves that are of interest to humans are also found in other countries.
Less boars - better
These predators are not necessarily gray. For example, in Portugal and northwestern Spain there are small wolves with gray wool, but at the same time there are black markings on their legs and tail, and white markings on their upper lips. For this the Iberian wolf is called "tagged." These wolves weigh 30-40 kilograms. They live in small flocks. It's easier to hunt. The basis of their food are wild boars.But they eat fish, Spanish goats, European roe deer, red deer, rabbits. In the famine years, the Iberian wolves abduct livestock. At the beginning of the 20th century, these animals were mass exterminated. However, people understood in time that there was not only harm from wolves, but also benefits. They, for example, help regulate the population of wild boars.
In the Apennine Mountains live Italian wolves. Although they are found in Switzerland and southern France. The size of their small. In length, they reach 100-140 centimeters and weigh 24-40 kilograms. Wool has a gray tint, sometimes reaching black. At night, the Italian wolf goes hunting. Its prey is chamois, wild boar, European roe deer, red deer, rabbits, and hares. In the years of hunger, the Italian wolf does not disdain livestock, berries and herbs. On the day he eats 1.5-3 kilograms of raw meat. Italian wolf is protected by humans. Currently, people are struggling to increase its populations. These predators mate in mid-March. Pregnancy lasts about two months. The older the wolf, the more wolf she brings. The maximum number of cubs in one litter is 8.At birth, cubs weigh about 300 grams. Their eyes open on the 12th day. And after three or four months, they stop sucking the mother's milk and completely switch to the meat diet.
It is impossible not to wonder how many species of wolves exist on our planet. But it turns out they could be more. For example, until 1911 a wolf lived on the island of Newfoundland near the Canadian coast. His coat was light gray, with a black stripe along the ridge. He ate voles, hares and deer. However, this kind of wolf disappeared from the face of the earth. Two factors contributed to this: a reduction in the deer population that served as its main food, and excessive extermination by humans. We need to think about it and try to preserve the endangered species of wolves, which needs human support at the moment.
Not like everyone else
These predators are not necessarily gray. For example, the red wolf is listed in the Red Book. Initially, this species was exterminated without restrictions. And in the middle of the 20th century, they discovered that soon there would not be a single such animal. Therefore, it was decided to take measures to save them. At that time, only a few wolves remained in nature.To preserve the appearance, they were caught and held in captivity. Soon the population began to grow. Currently, only 270 individuals of this species live in America.
Red wolves are small, long legs, large ears and short red fur. Outwardly, they are more like a fox than a wolf. Although their wool is not pure red. The back and the end of the tail are black. In the summer they molt, and by the winter they become bright red. Adult individuals weigh 20-40 kilograms, reach 130 centimeters in length. Red wolves prefer to live in remote mountainous and marshy areas. They usually hunt in small packs consisting of members of their families. They catch deer, rabbits, muskrats, nutria. Do not disdain carrion, berries and insects. The natural enemies of red wolves are alligators and red bobcats.
There are no more
I would like to recall another species of an extinct predator - the marsupial wolf. This animal has also been subjected to uncontrolled destruction by man. Until the 1930s, marsupial predators were common in Tasmania. But over time, these wolves multiplied so much that they began to ravage bird farms and destroy sheep.In addition, they were the first to come to the traps set by the hunters, and eat the prey that got there, leaving the person with nothing. People could not stand such an attitude and began shooting and catching a Tasmanian wolf. Only individuals living in remote areas could escape. However, an epidemic of dog plague soon began, which contributed to the mass death of the marsupial wolves. By the beginning of the 20th century, several units remained alive. At the same time, people continued their destruction. The last representative of this species died in the zoo in 1930. And yet it is wonderful that such wolves lived on Earth. The types of wolves are still diverse, but the marsupials were unique.
These were small animals. In length, without taking into account the tail, they reached 100-130 centimeters. Weighed about 25 kilograms. The head of the marsupial wolf resembled a dog with short rounded ears. The tail was thick at the base and thin at the end. The hind legs were bent. Wool was short and tough, yellow-brown color. On the back were 13-19 brown transverse stripes. On the face were white blurred marks around the eyes.Interestingly, when the marsupial wolf was yawning, its mouth opened 120 degrees. The animal could jump on socks. Food for him served echidna, birds, lizards, small marsupials. On his stomach was a bag, which is a fold of skin. In this bag, the Tasmanian wolf hatched its young for 2-3 months. Rumor has it that marsupial wolves have survived and still live in Tasmanian forests. But confirmation of this has not yet been found.
Where it's hot
Yes, wolves are different. Species of wolves, such as, for example, the Ethiopian, were not originally classified as a dog family. But now scientists are convinced that it is not foxes, not jackals, but wolves. They live in Ethiopia. Their coat has red color, white throat. There are light spots on the legs and some other parts of the body. The tail on the top and the ears on the back side are black. These are small animals weighing 13-16 kilograms. The diet of the Ethiopian wolf includes rodents. Among them are bats, rats, and hares. Sometimes they hunt small antelopes and their young. Interestingly, although the habitat of the Ethiopian wolf is Africa, it does not tolerate a hot climate. He prefers to live higher in the alpine meadows.But the areas of these meadows are gradually reduced due to environmental problems and other reasons, so these predators have nowhere to live. Man also destroys because of the valuable fur of a rare color, so this animal is listed in the Red Book.
From hot Africa we will be transferred to the north and see if there are wolves there. There are many kinds of wolves, but only one lives in the Arctic - the polar. The conditions in the north are harsh, and the animal must be prepared for them. The polar wolf has got a thick and dense coat of white color, which does not allow it to freeze. It is not difficult to imagine how hard it is for a wolf to find food in a cold, almost uninhabited area. But he copes with this task. After all, he has a great scent and keen eyesight. There is another feature of the survival of the polar wolf in extreme conditions. He eats his prey with the skin and bones, not a single gram of nutrients should not be wasted. And the polar wolf is a large animal. It reaches a weight of 60-80 kilograms. It is not difficult to imagine how much food he needs in order to maintain such a mass. Usually in the diet of this predator includes hares, deer and other northern animals.You cannot hunt a polar wolf. It is listed in the Red Book. This is facilitated not only by the capture of a wolf by a man, but also by the onset of global warming, which changes the climatic conditions of residence of these predatory animals.
Too few of them
It is interesting that most species of wolves, the photos and the name of which you saw, are listed in the Red Book. They are considered dangerous predators, but it turns out that they themselves need human help. Another rare species is the red wolf. He lives not only in Russia. But in our country it is in danger of extinction, and in India it is allowed to hunt, but only under license. Having seen this animal, only experts will be able to determine that there is a wolf in front of them. After all, he looks like a fox and a jackal at the same time. Yes, and his fur red-red. But the legs on the inside, sides, chest have a cream color. A dark pattern is visible around the eyes and on the nose. Like all predators, the red wolf feeds on meat. But he has one interesting feature. He loves to eat bitter rhubarb. If a red wolf has puppies, then this plant will definitely be in the lair.This predator feeds its cubs, first eating and then belching this plant. In the litter there are usually 4-6 puppies. They are born weighing about 300 grams, and begin to take part in the general hunt, reaching the age of 7-8 months. Red wolves hunt in packs of 15-20 individuals. Accordingly, they have a chance to overwhelm a large animal and feed on the heap.
Here they are, the heroes of our fairy tales. Of course, we are accustomed to the fact that the wolf has a gray flank. But it may be worth changing the fairy tale and making the wolf not a dangerous kidnapper of children, but an ordinary animal that wants to live a simple life, avoid meeting people and try not to disappear from the face of the Earth.